NAME: BUNKER ROY
DATE OF BIRTH: AUGUST 2, 1945
He attended The Doon School from 1956 to 1962, and St. Stephen's College, Delhi from 1962 to 1967. Roy was the National Runner-up in squash in 1964, and participated in three world squash championships representing India.
Bunker is a founder of what is now called Barefoot College. After conducting a survey of water supplies in 100 drought prone areas, Roy established the Social Work and Research Center in 1972. Its mission soon changed from a focus on water and irrigation to empowerment and sustainability. The programs focused on siting water pumps near villages and training the local population to maintain them without dependence on outside mechanics, providing training as paramedics for local medical treatment, and on solar power to decrease dependence and time spent on kerosene lighting.
He was recognized in 2010 in Time for the programs of the college which have trained more than 3 million people in skills including solar engineers, teachers, midwives, weavers, architects and doctors. Roy was appointed by Rajiv Gandhi to the government's Planning Commission. He recommended that legislation be created that would apply a "code of conduct" for non-governmental organizations. He also proposed that a national council be created that would recommend "legitimate" organizations to the government and monitor their activities. Both of these recommendations were "fiercely" opposed as mechanisms that could be used to promote patronage of favored groups and quell organizations that were not supportive of a particular government or party.
In 1983, he was the plaintiff in Roy v State of Rajasthan in which the Supreme Court struck down an emergency policy which had allowed women famine relief workers to be paid less than male workers.
Roy has spoken at the TED conference;in which he talks about how the Barefoot College "helps rural communities becomes self-sufficient."
Mortenson, Greg. (29 April 2010) Sanjit 'Bunker' Roy The 2010 TIME 100. TIME. Retrieved on 2 June 2012.
TY – BOOK T1 – Youth A1 – India. Ministry of Education IS – v. 8–11 Page 16 SN – 0513-3289 UR – https://books.google.com/books?id=tC1qqQd6l5wC Y1 – 1964 PB – Ministry of Education of India
Elkington, John; Hartigan, Pamela (1 February 2008). The Power of Unreasonable People: How Social Entrepreneurs Create Markets That Change the World. Harvard Business Press. pp. 52–. ISBN 9781422104064. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
Jump up to John, Mary (2003). Children's Rights and Power: Charging Up for a New Century. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 232–. ISBN 9781853026584. Retrieved 23 November2012.
Sumit Ganguly; Larry Diamond; Marc F. Plattner, eds. (13 August 2007). "The Role of Civil Society". The State of India's Democracy. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 157–. ISBN 9780801887918. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
Epp, Charles R. (15 October 1998). The Rights Revolution: Lawyers, Activists, and Supreme Courts in Comparative Perspective. University of Chicago Press. pp. 253–. ISBN 9780226211619. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
"Archives – 1985 Science and Technology". Jamnalal Bajaj Foundation. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
"Memorable Points – National". Pratiyogita Darpan. Pratiyogita Darpan. November 2009. pp. 34–.Retrieved 23 November 2012.
NAME: LEONARDO WILHELM DICAPRIO
DATE OF BIRTH: NOVEMBER 11, 1974
DiCaprio attended Seeds Elementary School (now UCLA Lab School) and John Marshall High School a few blocks away, after attending the Los Angeles Center for Enriched Studies for four years. He dropped out of high school following his third year, eventually earning his general equivalency diploma (GED). DiCaprio spent part of his childhood in Germany with his maternal grandparents, Wilhelm and Helene. He is conversant in German and Italian.
In 1979, DiCaprio was removed, at the age of five, from the set of the children's television series Romper Room for being disruptive. He began his career by appearing in several commercials and educational films, following his older stepbrother Adam Farrar into television commercials, and landing an ad at age 14 for Matchbox cars by Mattel, which he considered his first role. Throughout his teens he was seen in commercials for Kraft Foods, Bubble Yum, Apple Jacks, and many more. In 1989, he played the role of Glen in two episodes of the television show The New Lassie.
In 1990, he started acting regularly on television. This started with a role in the pilot of The Outsiders, and one episode of the soap opera Santa Barbara, playing the young Mason Capwell. That same year, DiCaprio got a break on television when he was cast in Parenthood. A series based on a successful comedy film by the same name. His works that year earned him two nominations at the Young Artist Award in Best Young Actor in a Daytime Series (Santa Barbara) and Best Young Actor Starring in a New Television Series (Parenthood). DiCaprio was also a celebrity contestant on the children's game show Fun House. One of the stunts he performed on the show was going fishing in a small pool of water by catching the fish only with his
Following the success of Titanic in 1997 along with earlier films, 24-year-old DiCaprio established the Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation in 1998, a non-profit organization devoted to promoting environmental awareness.Although concerned with all areas of the environment, it focuses on global warming, preserving Earth's biodiversity and supporting renewable energy. It has worked on projects in over 40 countries and has produced two short web documentaries, Water Planet and Global Warning. The foundation has also funded debt-for-nature swaps. Because of his active involvement in those causes, he has received praise from environmental groups. Among the accolades received were the Martin Litton Environment Award, in 2001, from Environment Now, and the Environmental Leadership Award in 2003 from Global Green USA. He has been an active supporter of numerous environmental organizations and has sat on the board of the World Wildlife Fund, Global Green USA, International Fund for Animal Welfare and the Natural Resources Defense Council.
DiCaprio is a vegetarian, rumored to even be vegan, and in 2014 he backed the documentary Cowspiracy about the impact of animal agriculture on the environment and the positions of several environmental organizations on the issue. By taking the role of executive producer, DiCaprio helped the documentary get released on Netflix. DiCaprio has owned environment-friendly electric-hybrid vehicles and his home is powered by solar panels, although his use of private jets and large yachts has attracted criticism due to their large carbon footprints.
"Leonardo DiCaprio; Scumsville superstar; His Parents Were Hippies and He Grew Up in the Poorest Part of Town – The People (London, England) – Questia Online Library". Questia Online Library. April 19, 1998. Retrieved January 13, 2009.
·"Poverty and family split spurred Leo to pounds 3m a film Titanic stardom; Gran tells of screen idol's battle". Questia Online Library. January 28, 1998. Retrieved January 13, 2009.
"Vladimir Putin: Leonardo DiCaprio is a 'real man'". The Daily Telegraph. November 24, 2010. Archived from the original on January 16, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
·"Vladimir Putin: Leonardo DiCaprio is a 'real man'". The Daily Telegraph. November 24, 2010. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
"Los Angeles Center For Enriched Studies: Facts about LACES". Los Angeles Center for Enriched Studies. Archived from the original on January 15, 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
Makarenko, Denis, Leonardo DiCaprio: I would love to read books in Spanish as it is an amazing culture, America Reads Spanish, archivedfrom the original on January 30, 2016, retrieved January 13, 2016
Name: Wangarĩ Muta Maathai
Date of Birth: 1st April 1940
At age eleven, Maathai moved to St. Cecilia's Intermediate Primary School, a boarding school at the Mathari Catholic Mission in Nyeri. Maathai studied at St. Cecilia's for four years. During this time, she became fluent in English and converted to Catholicism. She was involved with the Legion of Mary, whose members attempted "to serve God by serving fellow human beings. "Studying at St. Cecilia's, she was sheltered from the ongoing Mau Mau uprising, which forced her mother to move from their homestead to an emergency village in Ihithe. When she completed her studies there in 1956, she was rated first in her class, and was granted admission to the only Catholic high school for girls in Kenya, Loreto High School in Limuru. She was educated in the United States at Mount St. Scholastica (Benedictine College) and the University of Pittsburgh, as well as the University of Nairobi in Kenya.
Maathai taught at Nairobi, becoming a senior lecturer in anatomy in 1975, chair of the Department of Veterinary Anatomy in 1976 and associate professor in 1977. She was the first woman in Nairobi appointed to any of these positions.
She was a member of the Nairobi branch of the Kenya Red Cross Society, becoming its director in 1973. She was a member of the Kenya Association of University Women. Following the establishment of the Environment Liaison Centre in 1974, Maathai was asked to be a member of the local board, eventually becoming board chair. The Environment Liaison Centre worked to promote the participation of non-governmental organizations in the work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), whose headquarters was established in Nairobi following the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. Maathai also joined the National Council of Women of Kenya (NCWK). Through her work at these various volunteer associations, it became evident to Maathai that the root of most of Kenya's problems was environmental degradation
Wangari Maathai is internationally admired for her persistence in the areas of environmental conservation, human rights, and democracy. She has taken the opportunity to address the United Nations on several occasions and has spoken at special sessions of the General Assembly on behalf of women. Maathai has been given numerous awards because of her philanthropic work with the Green Belt Movement and other organizations. The most notable award given to Wangari Maathai was the Nobel Peace Prize in 2004.
In December 2002, Professor Maathai received another honor when she was elected to the Kenyan Parliament with 98% of the vote. After winning the election she was appointed, by President Mwai Kibaki, as Assistant Minister for Environment, Natural Resources and Wildlife in Kenya’s ninth parliament.
Wangarĩ Maathai was awarded the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize for her "contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace". She had received a call from Ole Danbolt Mjos, chair of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, on 8 October informing her of the news. She became the first African woman, and the first environmentalist, to win the prize.
The Green Belt Movement: Sharing the Approach and the Experience. Lantern Books. 2004. ISBN 978-1-59056-040-2.; (1985)
The bottom is heavy too: even with the Green Belt Movement : the Fifth Edinburgh Medal Address (1994)
Bottle-necks of development in Africa (1995)
The Canopy of Hope: My Life Campaigning for Africa, Women, and the Environment (2002)
Reclaiming rights and resources women, poverty and environment (2007)
Rainwater Harvesting (2008)
State of the world's minorities 2008: events of 2007 (2008)
Name: David Takayoshi Suzuki
Date of Birth: 18 March 1936
Suzuki received his Bachelor of Arts degree in biology in 1958 from Amherst College in Massachusetts where he first discovered genetics study, and his Doctor of Philosophy degree in zoology from the University of Chicago in 1961.
From 1961 to 1962, Suzuki worked at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. From 1962 to 1963, he was an assistant professor at the University of Alberta. He was a professor in the genetics department at the University of British Columbia for almost forty years, from 1963 until his retirement in 2001, and has since been professor emeritus at a university research institute.
Since the mid-1970s, Suzuki has been known for his television and radio series, documentaries and books about nature and the environment. He is best known as host of the popular and long-running CBC Television science program The Nature of Things, seen in over 40 countries. He is also well known for criticizing governments for their lack of action to protect the environment.
A longtime activist to reverse global climate change, Suzuki co-founded the David Suzuki Foundation in 1990, to work "to find ways for society to live in balance with the natural world that does sustain us". The Foundation's priorities are: oceans and sustainable fishing, climate change and clean energy, sustainability, and Suzuki's Nature Challenge. The Foundation also works on ways to help protect the oceans from large oil spills such as the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Suzuki has also served as a director of the Canadian Civil Liberties Association from 1982 to 1987.
Suzuki was awarded the Right Livelihood Award in 2009. His 2011 book, The Legacy, won the Nautilus Book Award. He is a Companion of the Order of Canada. In 2004, David Suzuki ranked fifth on the list of final nominees in a CBC Television series that asked viewers to select The Greatest Canadian of all time.
Suzuki is the author of 52 books (nineteen for children), including David Suzuki: The Autobiography, Tree: A Life Story, The Sacred Balance, Genethics, Wisdom of the Elders, Inventing the Future, and the best-selling Looking At Senses a series of children's science books.
Sciencescape - The Nature of Canada (1986) - with Hans Blohm and Marjorie Harris
Pebbles to Computers: The Thread (1986) - with Hans Blohm and Stafford Beer
Metamorphosis: Stages in a life (1987) ISBN 0-773-72139-8
Genethics: The Clash between the New Genetics and Human Values (1990)
It's a Matter of Survival (1991) ISBN 0-674-46970-4
Time to Change (1994)
The Japan We Never Knew: A Journey of Discovery (1997) - with Keibo Oiwa
The Sacred Balance (1997)
From Naked Ape to Superspecies: A Personal Perspective on Humanity and the Global Ecocrisis (1999) - with Holly Dressel. ISBN 0-773-73194-6
From Naked Ape to Superspecies: Humanity and the Global Eco-Crisis, (2nd edition 2004) - with Holly Dressel. ISBN 1-553-65031-X
Good News for a Change: Hope for a Troubled Planet (2001) - with Holly Dressel. ISBN 0-773-73307-8
More Good News (2003)
More Good News: Real Solutions to the Global Eco-Crisis (Revised ed. 2010) - with Holly Dressel. ISBN 1-553-65475-7
David Suzuki: The Autobiography (2006)
David Suzuki's Green Guide (2008) - with David Boyd
The Big Picture: Reflections on Science, Humanity, and a Quickly Changing Planet (2009) - with David Taylor
The Legacy: An Elder's vision for a sustainable future (2010) - with foreword by Margaret Atwood
Letters to My Grandchildren Greystone Books (2015) ISBN 978-1771640886
Force of Nature: The David Suzuki Movie (2010), 93 minute documentary DVD (210616DV)
Summary: Cradle to Cradle
The second speaker Mr Kafaru Simileoluwa spoke on the need to rethink the way we make things. He established the fact that Recycling, Reducing, Reuse and Regulating is not enough to solve the present environmental threats faced by the world today; ranging from Climate Change, to pollution and also resource depletion. He stated that the mother earth should not be treated as merely a tool for mans progress, but man should see a need to actively interact with nature in a mutually benefitting manner.
He emphasized that there is a need to go back to the very foundation of all products and bring out a design that would interact safely with the environment, a world where the word WASTE only exists as a source of natural resource for man and equally nutrient for the environment.
Civilians are #NotATarget
"15 years ago, on 19 august, 22 humanitarian aid workers were killed in a bomb attack on the canal hotel in Baghdad, Iraq. This World Humanitarian Day, we’re shining a light on the millions of people whose lives are being destroyed by wars. Explore their stories, then join the movement to demand action from world leaders. Civilians are #NotATarget."
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE SEMINAR SERIES
Join us as Dr. Akinsemolu discusses the numerous positive functions microbes perform in the environment and a need to explore the microbial world astutely as it can contribute tremendously to sustainable development. The seminar is open to the general public but limited seats are available.
DAVID BELLAMY: Green Personality of August 2018
David Bellamy is the President of the British Institute of Cleaning Service (BICSc) and a strong supporter of the BICSc plan to educate young people to care for and protect the environment. Also, he runs the David Bellamy Awards program as a competition designed to encourage schools to be aware of and act positively towards environmental cleanliness
TEDx ELIZADE UNIVERSITY
On 28th June, Founder of the Green Institute, Adenike Akinsemolu featured on a TEDx event titled Shaping The Future, where 12 speakers within 12 minutes spoke on various fields of study spanning across agriculture, music, poetry, social and biological environment.
NAME: Ageratum conyzoides
COMMON NAMES: Goat weed, Billygoat-weed, chick weed, whiteweed
LOCAL NAMES: Imi-esu, Ula ujula, Urata, Ahenhen, pig feces, macela
USEFUL PART(s): Whole plant, leaves, root
THE SCIENTIFIC AFRICAN LAUNCHED ON ELSEVIER
Currently, only two percent of all global scientific research comes from Africa. A new scientific journal has been launched in Africa in an effort to increase research output from the continent, which currently provides just two percent of all global research publications. We encourage young African researchers to publish in this new scientific journal.
Call for Chapter Contribution
Our ultimate goal is to elevate the dialogue about the challenges of sustainable development as an inclusive approach to solving pressing global problem.
We invite experts, academics and students to submit chapter contributions and innovations for collectively addressing the contemporary challenges facing the anthroposphere, in which the environment is a pivotal constituent.
- The Kofi Annan Fellowship for a one-year full-time MBA at the ESMT Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Support: €43,500 plus fair compensation for travel and accommodation costs and program related fees
Deadline: Sept 30, 2018.
- European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) Country Based Support Scheme Nigeria (CBSS), European Union
Deadline: Aug 28, 2018.
- Small Conservation Grants, Jana Robeyst Trust Fund
Range: €1,500 per project
Deadline: Aug 31, 2018.
THINGS YOUSHOULD KNOW
You can get a Nano Degree in various courses at the Green Institute:
Full name: David James Bellamy
Date of birth: 18 January, 1933
Residence: County Durham, England
Family: He married Rosemary Froy in 1959 and they had 5 children together
He attended Chatsworth Road Primary School, Cheam; Cheam Road Junior School and Sulton County Grammar School; all in England.
He originally wanted to study English Literature and History but later changed to study Botany, Physics and Chemistry in the sixth form. Thus he studied Botany for a bachelor degree at Chelsea college of science and Technology which is now part of University College, London. Also, he got his PhD at Bedford College (now part of the University of London) in 1960.
In 1960, David Bellamy became a lecturer in Botany Department of Durham University, after having worked as a laboratory assistant at Ewell Technical College, London and before becoming a graduate. However, it was his environmental consultancy work on the Torrey Canyon oil spillage in 1967 that brought him into prominence as a result of his write up in a leading scientific journal named “Nature”.
Also, he wrote many books for TV series in the 1980’s, especially for children’s enjoyment and education. In 1980, he released a musical single entitled ‘Brontosaurus Will You Wait For Me?’. It reached number 88 in the charts then.
Besides, Bellamy worked for the New Zealand Tourism department’s unique program for foreign journalists. While in New Zealand, he also worked on a documentary series known as “Noah’s Ark” which was released in 1990.
Moreover, he is one of the originators of the Ford European Conservation Awards. Significantly, David Bellamy has worked on and presented hundreds of television programs on Botany, ecology, environmental and other issues. Examples of such include “Bellamy on Botany”, “Bellamy Britain”; “Bellamy Europe”; and “Bellamy Backyard Safari”.
In 1983, Bellamy was jailed for blockading the Australian Franklin River in a protest against a proposed dam. On the 18th of August, 1984, he jumped from the pier at St. Abbs Harbor into the North Sea and thereby Voluntary Marine Reserve, the St. Abbs and Eyemouth Voluntary Marine Reserve.
In the late 1980’s, he staged a campaign in Jersey, Channel Islands, to save Queen Valley from being turned into a reservoir because of the presence of a rare type of snail, but he was unable to stop it. Besides, David Bellamy is the President of the British Institute of Cleaning Service (BICSc) and a strong supporter of the BICSc plan to educate young people to care for and protect the environment. Also, he runs the David Bellamy Awards program as a competition designed to encourage schools to be aware of and act positively towards environmental cleanliness.
In 2004, David Bellamy wrote an article in the Daily Mail in which he described the theory of human-made global warming as ‘poppycock’. He also expressed his opinions on global warming in other newspapers magazines and scientific journals, particularly between 2005 and 2007.
- Bellamy on Botany (1972) ISBN 0-563-10666-2
- Peatlands (1973)
- Bellamy's Britain (1974)
- Life Giving Sea (1975)
- Green Worlds (1975)
- The World of Plants (1975)
- It's Life (1976)
- Bellamy's Europe (1976)
- Botanic Action (1978)
- Botanic Man (1978)
- Half of Paradise (1978)
- Forces of Life (1979)
- Bellamy's Backyard Safari (1981)
- The Great Seasons (with Sheila Mackie, illustrator; Hodder & Stoughton, 1981)
- Il Libro Verde (1981)
- The Mouse Book (1983)
- Bellamy's New World (1983)
- The Queen's Hidden Garden (1984)
- I Spy (1985)
- Bellamy's Bugle (1986)
- Bellamy's Ireland (1986)
- Turning The Tide (1986)
- Bellamy's Changing Countryside (1987)
- England's Last Wilderness (1989)
- England's Lost Wilderness (1990)
- Wilderness Britain? (1990, Oxford Illustrated Press, ISBN 1-85509-225-5)
- Moa's Ark (with Brian Springett and Peter Hayden, 1990)
- How Green Are You? (1991)
- Tomorrow's Earth (1991)
- World Medicine: Plants, Patients and People (1992)
- Blooming Bellamy (1993)
- Trees of the World (1993)
- The Bellamy Herbal(2003)
- Fabric Live: Bellamy Sessions (2004)
- Jolly Green Giant (autobiography, 2002, Century, ISBN 0-7126-8359-3)
- A Natural Life (autobiography, 2002, Arrow, ISBN 0-09-941496-1)
- Conflicts in the Countryside: The New Battle for Britain (2005), Shaw & Sons, ISBN 0-7219-1670-8
- “Honorary Graduates of Bournemouth University” (PDF), Bournemouth University. Document no longer available online.
- “Open Letter from World Scientists to All Governments Summary,” Institute of Science in Society. Archived November 30, 2010. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/oWSVw
- “Has David Bellamy gone mad?”, Marklynas.org, July 14, 2004. Archived February 11, 2006. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/7uou2
- “Junk Science,” Monbiot.com, May 10, 2005. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/R7idZ
- “Wildlife groups axe Bellamy as global warming 'heretic',” Times Online, May 15, 2005. Archived September 6, 2008. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/S9XeG
- “The Global Warming Myth,” The New Zealand Centre for Political Research, June 24, 2007. Archived October 14, 2008. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/gBAPY
- David Bellamy. “Glaciers are cool,” New Scientist, issue 2495 (April 16, 2005). Archived October 18, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/MBf6a
- “With all due respect Mr. President, that is not true.” Cato.org. Archived October 19,2 009. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/pbJvP
- “The Fraser Institute: Media Advisory; Independent Summary of UN Climate Change Report to be Released in London on Monday, 5th February,” (Press Release), Marketwire, February 2, 2007. Archived January 29, 2013. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/7THb1
- “Climate Weekly Special Report: Apocalypse No: Assessing Catastrophic Climate Change,” Proceedings of the Scientific Alliance Conference, Royal Institution, January 27, 2005. Republished by Frontiers of Freedom. Archived January 30, 2006. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/tP2Zo
- “Bellamy warms to scientists' scepticism on climate change,” The New Zealand Herald, Oct 19, 2006. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/geZhz
- “David Bellamy, former trustee of the World Land Trust,” World Land Trust. Archived January 6, 2009. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/muXlJ
- “David Bellamy,” The Heartland Institute. Archived October 18, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/qf9ZC
- “David Bellamy,” SourceWatch.
- “About the wildlife trusts,” Wildlifetrusts.org. Archived August 3, 2004. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/0p50U
- “Our history,” Plantlife. Archived November 14, 2011. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/bDPsw
- David Hasemyer. “Documents Reveal Fossil Fuel Fingerprints on Contrarian Climate Research,” InsideClimate News, February 21, 2015. Archived December 15, 2015.
- Google Scholar search for articles containing “Climate” or “Global Warming” by author “David Bellamy.” Search performed October 18, 2017.
- Jessica Salter. “Eco hero: David Bellamy, botanist and campaigner,” The Telegraph, November 19, 2009. Archived October 18, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/tMavl
- Boyle, Stewart; Ardill, John (1989), The Greenhouse Effect, London: New English Library.
- “What a Load of Poppycock!” The Daily Mail. Retrieved from Junksciencearchive.com. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.
- “16mm sound film “POWER FROM THE WIND” GB 1989” YouTube video uploaded by user “95filmforver,” October 2, 2017. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.
- The 2008 International Conference on Climate Change: Global Warming is not a crisis! (PDF), Archived July 25, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
- “In an adverse climate,” The Sunday Times, Mary 29, 2006. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/cr1aA
- “David Bellamy speaks out against wind farms,” The Journal, October 26, 2011. Archied October 18, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/3k1FB
- “David Bellamy denounces man-made climate change,” 3 News, September 9, 2009. Archived July 22, 2013. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.
- George Monbiot.”Bellamy the Bearded Bungler doesn't disappoint,” The Guardian, March 16, 2009.
On 28th June, the Green Institute featured on a TEDx event titled Shaping The Future, where 12 speakers within 12 minutes spoke on various fields of study spanning across agriculture, music, poetry, social and biological environment. Some of the speakers include Walter Spearheart (multi-instrumentalist), Olushola Amusan (Curators), Professor Theophilus Fadayomi (Acting Vice Chancellor, Elizade University), Tade Ajiboye (Virtual Reality Developer) and others.
The event took place in Elizade University, Ilara-Mokin, Akure, Ondo Nigeria. Among the speakers was Dr. Akinsemolu Adenike (Founder of the Green Institute) who was accompanied by a few representatives of the Green institute, where she gave a presentation titled “Selling the Green Idea”.
With a time limit of 12 minutes, she gave an orientation about what the Green Institute is involved in, what it means to go green, the need for environmental sustainability and also implored the audience to take the green pledge.
Pollution is posing a great threat to the existence of life on this planet. Plastic pollution magnifies this problem. The number of plastic waste disposed on a yearly basis can go around the earth three times and over. Unfortunately, the final destination of most of these plastic wastes are the oceans as 8 million plastics are estimated to get into the ocean yearly.
Plastic pollution poses challenges to wildlife, plants and even humans. Since 2004, about 4 billion plastics have been produced. The extensive use of plastics in clothing, automobiles, electronic gadgets, storage facilities, food packages shows how important the use of plastics can be which accounts for such a rise in production. Sadly, they play a vital role in polluting the environment as they are not biodegradable since they are meant for durability. It is established that 78% of hazardous wastes are plastics. Apart from the threat which improper management of plastics pose to our ecology, our health is also at risk. Plastics, a product of refined crude oil containing Bisphenol-A -a chemical functioning as plasticizers, responsible for the flexibility and durability of the material poses health risks when in contact with food.
Africa is no stranger to pollution. The continent has battled with garbage disposal issues for many years. The use of plastic bags account for a large number of landfill dilemmas. The Nile and Niger have been listed amongst the chief culprits of disastrous pollutions of the environment by a recent study conducted in 2017. The large populations living on the river banks are responsible for why the rivers entry points of plastics into the ocean.
The devastating effects of poor waste management are so evident in the continent. In Lagos, Nigeria, only 40% of 10,000 tonnes of waste are collected. Nigeria has also had an estimated 349 oil spills, and has lost 80% of the country's forest.
The expansion of the middle class in the continent has seen the consumption of more plastics and items contained in plastics than any other time in the history of the continent. Mismanaged wastes from maritime and shipping activities in the continent also find its way into the oceans. Polystyrene buoys that form significant amounts of plastic debris from agricultural processes also end up in oceans or beaches.
Other factors identified to influence the movement of plastics into the oceans include human behaviour such as littering, wind, water flows, vehicular transport. The primary sources found to be caused by human practices.
Beating plastic pollution
In a bid to address the alarming rise of plastic wastes, many countries have adopted different policies. Many African countries are banning the use of plastic bags. After losing 70% of its livestock to the ingestion of plastics, Mauritania was the first African country to ban plastic wastes. Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Ghana, Ethiopia, Senegal, Uganda and Tanzania have followed suit, while South Africa and Cameroon placed taxes for its use.
Retail serves as a great opportunity by which plastic pollution can be beaten. Plastic wastes are being transformed into marketable products for retail. For instance, plastic bags are transformed into school bags for kids; tires are turned to shoes and plastic bottles are being recycled for further use by appropriate agencies.
Trash for education is another concept in play to beat plastic pollution. This process involves tapping into informal waste collection and exchanging it for educational vouchers which can be redeemed for online/offline courses or educational materials. The heavier the weight of the trash, the higher the value of the educational voucher awarded to the student. The scheme which is designed by Green Campus Initiative creates value for participants by generating revenue through recycling and reuse of materials, which serves as an employment avenue. To what effect? Let's consider a case study of Grace, a Gambian-born Nigerian living in the western part of the country.
Like every other fresher preparing for resumption, Grace had prepared a lengthy list of needs for her first year in higher institution. Grace whose childhood dream has always been to become a Civil Engineer hopes to build sustainable buildings in local communities. Though her farmer dad and her trader mum can be said to be lower middle-class, they have strongly influenced and supported her ambitious dreams.
Determined to prepare herself in the best possible way, she made an exhaustive list of items needed to excel in her studies. In a quest to assist her parents as she knew they might not be able to afford all she needed, she enrolled in a paid internship with Green Campus Initiative (GCI). It was during the internship she learnt about the ‘Trash for Education’ programme; a system designed to reward people who trade their valuable wastes and other unused materials with formal education, educational materials and vocational training.
That waste could serve as a substitute for money seemed foreign to Grace. However, she saw this as an opportunity to get some items off her list of needs; waste is everywhere, after all! Her parents were super excited when they heard as well. She signed up for the programme. Grace and her parents did not break a sweat fetching the amount of waste that will get her the most coveted item on her list – the Calculus TextBook. Beyond the bargain, Grace was also presented a solar lamp to enable her read at night. Grace vowed to be a vanguard of Trash for education, as she truly believes it is a great scheme that can provide access to education, especially for those struggling to afford it.
Why the need to beat plastic pollution arises
Plastic pollution affects the food chain as microorganisms become poisoned from ingestion. This poses a bigger problem when fishes and larger animals feed on them which brings plastic poisoning further up the food chain. Clean drinking water is also at risk as plastic poisoning can find its way to humans. This can be due to the interaction of plastics with water in landfills which seeps underground, degrading the water quality. The burning of plastic also releases poisonous chemicals into the atmosphere which leads to respiratory problems when inhaled by humans and animals.
The effects of the improper management of plastic wastes are far-reaching, and it is imperative that we start acting fast to curb these effects for the ultimate good of sustaining life and making it better for the planet. We all need to get involved in the process of managing plastic waste. Recycling is an excellent point to start, but it cannot be done solely by a section of society. The world's environmental day gives us a perfect opportunity to remind ourselves to stand up and make more moves in cleaning the planet. We all have a role to play in ensuring that government legislations and independent environmental initiatives come to a realisation. Then and only then, can we truly have a cleaner, safer and better earth.
Full names: Vandana Shiva
Date of Birth: 5th November 1952
Place of Birth: Dehradun, India
She was educated at St. Mary’s School in Nainital, and at the Convent of Jesus and Mary in Dehradun.
Also, Shiva read Physics for both bachelor and Masters Degrees at Panjab University in Chandigarh, graduating in 1972 and 1974 respectively. Moreover, she studied for and got an MA in Philosophy of Science at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, in 1977.
Furthermore, Shiva studied for and bagged a PhD in Philosophy of Physics at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, in 1978.
Finally, she later proceeded for interdisciplinary research in Science, Technology and Environmental Policy at the India Institute of Science and the India Institute of Management, both in Bangalore, India. Thus, Vandana Shiva is a complete and prolific technocrat and a celebrated environmentalist.
Though Vandana Shiva is a well-trained and Certificated Pure Scientist, she makes a living as an author of various innovative books on green education and as a conference speaker.
Vandana Shiva lives in India.
Vandana Shiva is a prolific advocate of women rights and sustainable living. She is also an ever-ready and indefatigable activist of biodiversity and indigenous knowledge.
Thus, she founded the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology (RFSTE) in 1982, which later led to the forming of what is known as “Navdanya” in 1991.
Navdanya means ‘Nine seeds’ or ‘New Gift’, which is a means of educating farmers of the immense advantages in the practice of having various and individualized crops rather than receiving offers from mono-culture food producers. The initiative brought about the establishment of over 40 seed banks across India for diversified agriculture. Shiva also set up ‘Bija Vidyapeeth’ which is an international College for sustainable living, in Doon Valley, in 2004. He first book entitled ‘Staying Alive’ was published in 1988 and it helped redefine perceptions of Third World Women. Also, Shiva has written copious reports for FAO and the UN on mainly women rights issues and sustainable agriculture and even manufacturing. Besides, she has worked for the Promotion of biodiversity in agriculture to increase productivity, nutrition and farmer’s incomes. It is for this work that Time magazine recognized her as an ‘Environmental Hero in 2003. In an interview with David Borsamian, Shiva argues that the Seed-Chemical Package promoted by Green revolution agriculture had depleted soil, destroyed living ecosystems, and negatively impacted people’s health. In her work, she cites data allegedly demonstrating that today there are over 1400 pesticides that may enter the food system across the world because only 1% of pesticides sprayed act on the target pest. Vandana Shiva, alongside her sister, Dr Mira Shiva, argues that the health costs of increasing pesticide and fertilizer use range from cancer to kidney failure to heart disease. Also, on what she calls ‘biopiracy’, Shiva has fought against and won attempted patents of several indigenous plants in India, such as basmati by the US Department of Agriculture and the Corporation WR Grace. Moreover, her activitism included the struggles against the promotion of the Sale and consumption of ‘Golden rice’ (a breed of rice that has been genetically engineered to biosynthesize beta-carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A) in India by GMO corporation of India, around 2013. However, there have been several and severe criticisms of Vandana Shiva’s views and methods by some reputed solid analysists notably investigative Journalist Michael Specter of the New Yorker in an article on 25 August, 2014 entitled ‘Seeds of Doubt’ and journalist Kerth Kloor in an article published in ‘Discover’ on 23 October, 2014 entitled ‘The Rich allure of a Peasant Champion. Notwithstanding, all the criticisms have not reduced the personality and achievements of Vandana Shiva as a first-rate, world-class environmentalist.
Achievements of Sustainable Development and Environmentalism
The setting up and continuing operation of the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology (RFSTE) in 1982, the initiative, promotion and benefit of ‘Navdanya’ in India since 1991; the winning of a 10-year legal battle against biopiracy the US Department of Agriculture and other organizations in 2005; the recognition by Time magazine as an ‘Environmental Hero’ in 2003; the establishment and continuing operation of an international college for sustainable living in Doon Valley, (i.e. Bija Vidya peeth) in 2004; etc
- 1991, Ecology and the Politics of Survival: Conflicts Over Natural Resources in India, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, ISBN 0-8039-9672-1
- 1992, Biodiversity: Social and Ecological Perspectives (editor); Zed Press, United Kingdom
- 1993, Women, Ecology and Health: Rebuilding Connections (editor), Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and Kali for Women, New Delhi
- 1993, Monocultures of the Mind: Biodiversity, Biotechnology and Agriculture, Zed Press, New Delhi
- 1993, Ecofeminism, Maria Mies and Vandana Shiva, Fernwood Publications, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, ISBN 1-895686-28-8
- 1994, Close to Home: Women Reconnect Ecology, Health and Development Worldwide, Earthscan, London, ISBN 0-86571-264-6
- 1995, Biopolitics (with Ingunn Moser), Zed Books, United Kingdom
- 1997, Biopiracy: the Plunder of Nature and Knowledge, South End Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, I ISBN 1-896357-11-3
- 2000, Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply, South End Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, ISBN 0-89608-608-9
- 2000, Tomorrow's Biodiversity, Thames and Hudson, London, ISBN 0-500-28239-0
- 2001, Patents, Myths and Reality, Penguin India
- 2002, Water Wars; Privatization, Pollution, and Profit, South End Press, Cambridge Massachusetts
- 2005, India Divided, Seven Stories Press,
- 2005, Globalization's New Wars: Seed, Water and Life Forms Women Unlimited, New Delhi, ISBN 81-88965-17-0
- 2005, Earth Democracy; Justice, Sustainability, and Peace, South End Press, ISBN 0-89608-745-X
- 2007, Manifestos on the Future of Food and Seed, editor, South End Press ISBN 978-0-89608-777-4
- 2007, Democratizing Biology: Reinventing Biology from a Feminist, Ecological and Third World Perspective, author, Paradigm Publishers ISBN 978-1-59451-204-9
- 2007, Cargill and the Corporate Hijack of India’s Food and Agriculture, Navdanya/RFSTE, New Delhi
- 2008, Soil Not Oil, South End Press ISBN 978-0-89608-782-8
- 2010, Staying Alive, South End Press ISBN 978-0-89608-793-4
- 2011, Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature & Knowledge, Natraj Publishers, ISBN 978-8-18158-160-0
- 2011, Monocultures of the Mind: Perspectives on Biodiversity, Natraj Publishers, ISBN 978-8-18158-151-8
- 2013, Making Peace With The Earth Pluto Press ISBN 978-0-7453-33762
Today is World Migratory Bird day (WMBD)!
Rufous Hummingbird / Selasphorus rufus
- This tiny migratory pollinator breeds in western Canada and the U.S. It spends the non-breeding season primarily in Mexico, but has also have been increasingly documented as wintering in the southeastern U.S.
- The Rufous Hummingbird is known as one of the “feistiest” hummingbirds in North America, aggressively defending nectar at feeders and flowers.
- This species breeds farther north than any other hummingbird, all the way to Alaska. Its migratory pattern is unusual, with most following the Pacific Coast north and the Rocky Mountains south, as one of the earliest fall migrants at backyard feeders.
- Their declining population may be due to changes in the timing of flowering as temperatures warm, pesticide applications, or loss of habitat. To help these brilliantly colored birds, plant native flowers that bloom throughout the season.
Golden-winged Warbler / Vermivora chrysoptera
- Changing habitats are impacting this striking bird with bright yellow markings.
- The Golden-winged Warbler prefers nesting sites with sparse shrubs and trees in wetlands or in upland areas. As this habitat matures to forest or is developed, numbers of this species have declined steeply.
- This species usually nests on the ground.
- Conservation efforts are focused on implementing management practices to increase breeding habitat in wetlands and shrublands, and on collaborating with partners to protect their wintering grounds in Central and South Am
Red Knot / Calidris canutus
- Traveling as many as 19,000 miles each year from non-breeding sites in South America to nesting sites in Canada, in as few as six days, it faces challenges throughout its journey.
- During spring migration this species stops over in Delaware Bay to feed on the eggs of horseshoe crabs. Such sites where they refuel for their long flights are important to protect.
- One of the biggest contributors to the declines in Red Knot populations is a warming climate, which is reducing the tundra where they nest, intensifying storms during their migration, and warming sea waters which affects the shellfish they need to survive.
- Helping to protect migratory birds from climate change impacts starts at home. Weatherizing your home, using energy-efficient lights and appliances, and reducing your use of fuel are small steps, but when multiplied across the planet they can have a big impact.
The Millennium Village Project (MVP) was initiated in 2005 as a means to implement the recommendations of the UN Millennium Project at a local scale in rural Africa. The main conclusion of the UN Millennium Project was that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) could be achieved if the high-income donor nations increased their official development assistance (ODA) to the long-standing UN target of 0·7% of gross national income (GNI). The evaluation of the MVP published in The Lancet Global Health reinforces the main message of the UN Millennium Project, and is relevant for the era of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): a small amount of funding goes far to achieve bold goals to alleviate the multidimensional burdens of rural poverty.
The MVP was implemented under three over-riding principles: (1) an integrated rural development approach, with interventions spanning agriculture, environmental restoration, primary education, primary health care, and local infrastructure (water, sanitation, energy, and connectivity); (2) an incremental donor investment aiming at $60 per person per year; and (3) community- based delivery, with a focus on inclusive services for the community (farmer cooperatives, health systems, public education, and local infrastructure) rather than private income transfers or credits for individuals or for businesses. The focus, in short, was on grant financing for community-based capital. The project was undertaken in impoverished rural areas in 10 countries in sub- Saharan Africa with the cooperation of national and local governments and the communities.
All ten Millennium Village (MV) sites operated for the entire 10 years of the project, during which investments and systems were successfully implemented in a phased manner. A multisector approach proved to be feasible in all the sites and a small lead team of around five local staff ensured support and continuity across hundreds of interventions spanning the major categories of farming, environment, health, education, and infrastructure. In no cases did the complexity of the project prove to be logistically or procedurally overwhelming. This was true even as donor funding for the MVP was limited to a mere $25 per person per year during the second phase.
The project achieved significant gains in MDG-related outcomes, and significant impacts compared with matched sites on 30 of the 40 MDG-related targets. When grouped by major MDG-related category (poverty, nutrition, education, health, and infrastructure), significant impacts were found for every major category. The largest consistent gains were in health and agriculture.
The outcomes on poverty were mixed, with no discernible impact on consumption-based poverty, and yet a positive effect on asset ownership. One plausible explanation for this finding is that most farm families seem to have directed increased incomes— from practices such as increased use of fertilisers and improved seeds, and strengthening of farmer-based organisations and cooperatives—mainly into durable assets (eg, latrines, piped water, better roofing or flooring materials) rather than non-durable consumption. We observed this same outcome in another project setting (northern Ghana) outside of the ten sites. In that site, too, households saved their incremental income as durable assets.
This explanation is necessarily provisional given uncertainties in the data. As is typical in rural settings, we had difficulty for several reasons in obtaining precise measurements of household income and consumption: inaccuracy of recall on surveys, high seasonality of consumption flows, irregular purchases of capital assets, and under-reporting of incomes by households. We regard the data on assets to be more reliable than the data on incomes and consumption spending, as household assets were directly observed by the survey teams.
The project achieved around a third of the MDG- related targets and fell short on two-thirds, although with at least some progress towards most of the targets. However, even when impacts were favourable, they were often insufficient to reach the ambitious targets. I suspect that there are four main reasons for this shortfall.
First, the MVP inherently lacked economies of scale—a point we of course recognised from the start. Because of the lack of scale economies, the benefits to an MVP site of receiving $60 per person per year were smaller for the MVP community than if the entire nation had received the same $60 per person per year. The MVP could build a local road, or a local micro-grid, but without the benefit of a national road network and power grid, the impact was restricted. The MVP could control a local disease outbreak, but not prevent its reintroduction from a neighbouring community.
Furthermore, the international community utterly failed to follow through on its commitment to raise ODA to 0·7% of GNI. For the 29 donor countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) taken as a group, the total ODA as of 2016 was a mere 0·32% of the combined GNI, signifying a shortfall in aid from these donor countries of roughly US$170 billion per year. Lacking adequate ODA, the interventions advocated by the UN Millennium Project could not be implemented at national scale in low-income Africa, and Africa as a whole fell short on the MDGs, with inevitable adverse consequences within the MVs as well. The MVP was meant to offer guidance on national scale-up, but the national scale-ups were generally constrained by limited ODA.
Second, and related, the MVP focused on only one of the three pillars of national poverty reduction. The MVP focused on rural development, not on urban development nor on national infrastructure (roads, rail, power, fibre) connecting rural and urban areas. Most importantly, the MVs did not benefit from complementary donor spending to boost urban jobs and incomes. Given the tiny sizes of many rural farms (often below 1 hectare), and the still rapidly growing rural populations, rural poverty will not end without the rapid growth of urban job opportunities alongside the higher productivity and incomes of farm households.
Third, as an island of relative prosperity in the midst of poverty, the MVP’s resources inevitably were shared beyond the MVs to the neighbouring areas, thus diminishing the spending per person and impact within the MVs. Partly, this sharing occurred as individuals from neighbouring communities came to the MVs to use the clinics, schools, and other expanded facilities. Partly it resulted from the tendency of local authorities to direct incremental budgetary resources towards non-MVP areas. This dilution of the MVP investments was natural, unpreventable, and inevitable.
Fourth, the MVP was underfunded in the second phase. In 2005, the project began as a 5-year effort, but by 2007 the MVP leadership team realised that the communities would need the full 10 years to 2015 to achieve the MDGs. Yet the MVP was able to raise only half of the $60 per capita for the second phase, and thus per force implemented a ramp-down of project funding between 2011 and 2015, which averaged $25 per person per year during the second 5-year interval.
As is widely recognised, there are important synergies across investments in health, education, agriculture, and infrastructure. Healthier children learn better and attend school more reliably; schools teach health-promoting activities; infrastructure such as electrification and clean water enhance both health and education. It used to be supposed that complex, multisector projects might be too hard to implement. We found that this was not the case: there were not only synergies in outcomes, but also important synergies in implementation across sectors. One of the most important means by which the MVP achieved such synergies was by instituting an effective real-time information platform. The MVP built a monthly information system based on local vital events reporting (births, deaths, and cause of death), reports from health workers and clinics, reports from schools, and additional data. Building a common information platform took time, and gained a high degree of performance only after the widespread uptake of smartphones (2012 in the MVs).
Other synergies emerged in the project’s interactions with the local and national governments, local and foreign universities, the business sector, and UN agencies. These counterparts were themselves working across several sectors, so the MVP, as an integrated development project, found an important multisector interface with these counterparts regarding information exchanges, partnerships, staffing, funding, and technical support to and from the project.
The MVP looked very different in 2015 from its launch in 2005. Fortunately, the project was not based on testing the effects of a specific and fixed set of interventions. It was instead based on reaching a specific set of targets. Throughout the project, the available technologies to achieve those targets improved rapidly. The project adjusted accordingly, regularly upgrading the interventions deployed in the MVs in line with the global technological progress. Consider briefly the case of malaria, one of the priority targets of the MVP. At the start of the MVP, malaria diagnoses and treatment were largely facility-based, with trained microscopists reading blood smears. The newly available artemisinin-based treatments were gradually being introduced via clinics. Mothers had to carry febrile children long distances to reach the clinic, and many did not make it in time. Most bednets as of 2005 still required frequent retreatments with insecticides in order to maintain their efficacy, and many nets were left untreated. Overall bednet coverage was very low. By 2015, all this had changed. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria were now available. Community health workers (CHWs) used these at the household level, and carried artemisinin-based treatments. The CHWs were supported by supervisors and by expert systems on smartphones. The bednets were redesigned to maintain the insecticide for the lifetime of the net. The MVP was an early adopter of each new antimalarial technology (long-lasting insecticidal bednets, rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based treatments at household level, CHW deployments, smartphone applications, real-time data- based adaptation of interventions and management), and the MVP experience accelerated the adoption of these effective control measures at both national and global levels.
Similar ongoing advances are now available for other aspects of rural health care (telemedicine, teledentistry, remote monitoring, expert systems), education (online curriculum, linked classrooms), infrastructure (solar and wind microgrids, solar-powered irrigation, remote monitoring of infrastructure), agriculture (precision farming, soil moisture monitoring, etc). In all cases, the MVP endeavoured to keep abreast of the latest technologies and to provide a base for their rapid uptake.
The SDGs call for bold advances in living standards by 2030, including the end of poverty (SDG 1) and hunger (SDG 2), universal health coverage (SDG 3), universal completion of secondary education (SDG 4),
gender equality (SDG 5), universal access to water and sanitation (SDG 6) and electricity (SDG 7), as well as several environmental goals related to climate (SDG 13), pollutants (SDG 12), urban environment (SDG 11) and biodiversity (SDG 14, 15). To achieve these bold goals, governments will need to implement integrated rural and urban development plans over a period of a decade or more, and to do so at all levels of government, from local communities to the national government.
The lessons from the MVP are highly pertinent. Multisector planning, budgeting, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation are feasible and necessary. Information platforms can be created for multisector plans and programmes. Computer technologies, including artificial intelligence and big data (responsibly managed), offer new cutting-edge solutions.
The lessons of the MVP suggest the following key steps. (1) Set clear targets to 2030. (2) Identify key interventions and budgetary needs. (3) Form teams from national to local level prepared to work in an integrated manner. (4) Establish real-time information systems. And (5) don’t expect a quiet life! Rapid changes in technology, and even in geopolitics, will force considerable innovations, systems changes, and improvisation, between now and 2030.
Jeffrey D. Sachs
Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10025, USA email@example.com
I was the Director of the Millennium Project
1. UN Millennium Project. Investing in development: a practical plan to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. http://csd.columbia.edu/publications/un-millennium-project-reports/
2. Mitchell S, Gelman A, Ross R, et al. The Millennium Villages Project:
a retrospective, observational, endline evaluation. Lancet Glob Health 2018;6: e500–13.
3. Jeffrey D. Sachs. Lessons from the Millennium Villages Project: a personal perspective.
Names: James Ephraim Lovelock
Birth: He was born on 26 July, 1919
Place of Birth: Letchworth Garden City, in Hertfordshire, England.
He attended Strand School, London, and Birkbeck College as a part-time evening student as a result of having started work early in life in a photography firm. He later studied Chemistry at the University of Manchester and also had his PhD in Medicine from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Also, he worked as a research fellow in both the College of Medicine, Yale University, and the Medical School, Harvard University, USA.
Lovelock is best described as ‘an independent scientist, inventor, and author’, because he has invented and made copious science tools and materials, such as electron capture detector, an instrument for the creation of microwave oven, instruments for NASA’s planetary expeditions, etc. He is most reputed for his development of the Gaia hypothesis.
Lovelock lives in Dorset, England.
Lovelock initially postulated that, as a result of global warming, ‘billions of us will die and the few breeding pairs of people that survive will be in the Arctic where the climate remains tolerable’ by the end of this century. However, in April 2012, interview which was aired on MSNBC, he eventually agreed that he had been ‘alarmist’. That was due to emerging facts and developments on what he had predicted would happen. Now, Lovelock advocates what he terms ‘sustainable development’ which he does not directly support. By ‘retreat’, he means ‘… changing where we live and how we get our food;… making plans for the migration of people from low-lying regions like Bangladesh into Europe … admitting that New Orleans is a goner and moving the people to cities better positioned for the future.’ The concept promotes the use of resources in such a way as to meet human needs with lower levels and environmentally harmful types of resources.
Achievements on Sustainable Development and Environmentalism
In September 2007, Lovelock and Chris Rapley suggested constructing oceans pumps to pump water up from below the thermocline to ‘fertilize algae in the surface waters and encourage them to bloom ‘. The purpose was to cause the acceleration of the transfer of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the ocean by increasing primary production and enhancing the export of organic carbon to the deep ocean. It is noteworthy that despite widespread media attention and criticism on this proposal by Lovelock, a commercial company was already working independently on similar ideas as at that time. This idea is now known as Geo-engineering or Climate engineering. Also, Lovelock now favours ‘fracking’ as a low-polluting alternative to coal.
Publications/Awards and Honours
- Fellow of the Royal Society (1974)
- Tswett Medal (1975)
- American Chemical Society Award in Chromatography (1980)
- Norbert Gerbier – MUMM Award (1988)
- Dr AH. Heineken Prize for Environmental Sciences (1990)
- Commander of the Order of the British Empire (1990)
- Volvo Environment Prize (1996)
- Companion of Honour (2003)
- Wollaston Medal (2006)
- Arne Naess Chair in Global Justice and Environment (2007)
- Lovelock has copious articles in leading science journals.
Authors: Adenike A. Akinsemolu, Felix A. Akinyosoye, Daniel J. Arotupin
The industrial revolution marked the beginning of unprecedented anthropogenic growth and technological advancement that also inadvertently led to acute environmental degradation. This technological advancement was driven by the use fossil fuels such as crude oil. Crude oil extraction through drilling has resulted in widespread environmental pollution and deterioration of natural habitats. The Ondo State region in Nigeria presents one such expanse where large scale crude extraction operations have caused hazardous environmental pollution and toxic substance contamination. This study is a comprehensive and holistic study of the terrestrial soil ecosystem aimed towards elucidating the potential ecotoxicity that may have adversely affected the area. The results indicated that the terrestrial soil ecosystem was largely acidic (~pH6) and the organic matter content ranged from 6% to 12% indicating the soil was hydric. The results also indicated that the terrestrial soil environment was contaminated with toxic heavy metals including cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). The toxic heavy metal concentration of the soil ecosystem was higher during the dry season. The Cr concentration in the soil samples was >3 ppm in most of the sampling sites, which exceeded WHO maximum permissible limit. Mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the soil samples in both seasons were of the order: Cr > Pb > Cd > As. The soil ecosystem was also characterized by a diverse and large population of microorganisms including bacteria like Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, and several species of fungi.
- Anthropogenic Growth;
- Crude Oil Extraction;
- Toxic Heavy Metals;
Over the past several decades, uncontrolled anthropogenic growth has led to overutilization and exploitation of natural resources as well as widespread environmental pollution and degradation. One of the more significant damaging effects of this unrestrained growth has been the uncontrolled assembly of excess waste materials, which is contaminated with a wide range of noxious substances as well as toxic heavy metals and various detrimental materials   . Reckless discharge practices for such waste products added an additional environmental burden to natural ecosystems and had resulted in hazardous consequences  . This waste disposal has mostly affected terrestrial soil ecosystems, turning the useful soil systems into wastelands . According to a report published by the United Nations Environment Program  on the Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland, such soil contamination not only affects the socio-economic life of the inhabitants of the affected region but also it has an adverse effect on the drinking water quality. Therefore, regulation and reversal of this colossal degradation of natural ecosystems necessitate an appropriate socioeconomic valuation of natural resources, along with an efficient and sustainable utilization of these natural resources and employment of responsible waste treatment technologies .
The extraction of crude oil and natural gases has had hazardous consequences on natural environments. Kvenvolden and Cooper  reported that crude-oil seepage is about 600,000 metric tons per year. Crude oil extraction through drilling in terrestrial, marine or coastal environments has been a source of significant concern. This drilling often leads to industrial accidents such as spillage and acute environmental degradation due to irresponsible waste expulsion practices.
This study has focused on the terrestrial soil ecosystem of the Ondo state region in Nigeria. This region is a major site for offshore and mainland crude oil drilling operations that are carried out by several multinational oil corporations . Furthermore, due to the lack of adequate wastewater treatment facilities in the region, a substantial amount of the wastewater produced in the region flows through the network of rivers into the area under investigation and frequently contaminates the surrounding natural environment .
Soil samples were collected and studied to examine the nature and degree of potential environmental pollution in the natural environment of the region. To this end, several standard soil quality parameters, as well as physicochemical parameters, were analyzed in samples that were collected from several different sampling regions. Toxic heavy metals are generally defined as metals or metalloids that have relatively high density, occur in multiple oxidation states, and cause extreme toxic effects on living organisms even upon exposure to low concentrations  . The toxic heavy metals are found either naturally in a given area or can accumulate in the region as a result of anthropogenic activities. They have the ability to interact and bind to cellular components and can inhibit metabolic functions and activities of living cells .
There have been several studies which sought to determine the extent and causes of toxic heavy metal distribution in various parts of the world    . The results of Manta, Angelone, Bellanca, Neri and Sprovieri  demonstrated that in parts of Italy, the source of Pb, Zn, and Hg in topsoil could be traced to anthropogenic pollution, while other metals like Mn and Ni among were thought to be primarily naturally occurring metals. Lin, Teng and Chang  demonstrated that in Taiwan, urbanization and industrialization had led to the contamination of natural soil environments with toxic heavy metals. Arora et al.  , demonstrated that in parts of India, use of irrigation water contaminated with toxic heavy metals led to bio-accumulation within vegetables that were being consumed by the general population. Li, Ma, van der Kuijp, Yuan and Huang  summarized that mining activities and irresponsible mining waste discharge practices across several provinces of China led to toxic heavy metal pollution in the region.
Microorganisms are the keystone of any natural ecosystem as they regulate vital nutrient cycles in a natural environment and hence the microbial population dynamics of the terrestrial soil environment were also analyzed. Therefore, this study presents a comprehensive picture of the terrestrial soil ecosystem and reveals several facets of the natural environment that can lead to widespread pollution and environmental degradation with devastatingly hazardous consequences.
In storm-battered New Orleans, preparation for disasters "has become the norm, not the exception"
Sitting on his porch in the Lower Ninth Ward of New Orleans, Otis Tucker cuts a lone figure on a street punctuated with large empty spaces - the shadows of homes lost to Hurricane Katrina.
Tucker lives in the part of the Louisiana city most devastated by the powerful storm and its aftermath in 2005, when levees designed to protect the city from flooding failed.
Many residents of the poor neighbourhood have struggled to return after fleeing Katrina.
Lack of funds to come home and rebuild, coupled with developers swiftly moving in, and gentrification of this predominantly black, lower-income area, have left scars.
Today, broken windows and overgrown weeds pepper abandoned homes, and the angry barking of a dog interrupts the silence.
"There were families here, there were kids in the street playing football, and there were neighbours," said Tucker, who was born and bred in the neighbourhood. "And that went away overnight. It just got washed away."
Since being battered by Katrina – which killed more than 1,800 people and destroyed or damaged about 800,000 homes - New Orleans has started adapting to extreme weather, which scientists predict will worsen as the planet warms.
Arthur Johnson, chief executive officer of the Center for Sustainable Engagement and Development in the Lower Ninth Ward, said disaster preparation "has become the norm, not the exception".
Evacuation centres have been built, homes have been raised higher, and solar panels installed on roofs.
The center teaches the community here to create "rain gardens" that capture rainwater for re-use. And with much of the soil still contaminated by toxic chemicals such as arsenic post-Katrina, local people are shown how to grow orchards and plant seeds in troughs above the ground.
WORKING WITH WATER
On a larger scale, New Orleans-based architects Waggonner and Ball have played a lead role in developing the Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan.
Funded by the Louisiana Office of Community Development, the plan addresses flooding from heavy rainfall, as well as ground subsidence caused by pumping out storm water.
Company president David Waggonner, who travels extensively to share his experiences, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation the city has much to learn from Amsterdam.
New Orleans has relied on an outdated method of pumping out excess water, and needs to rethink if it is to survive, he explained at his desk, which sports a model of the city's streets and extensive pump stations.
"The city needs to learn to live with water - creating a space for water to fall and gradually go into the soil and back into the sky," he said.
One way to do this is by creating "aesthetic blue ways and green ways", he added.
These include the Mirabeau Water Garden in Gentilly district - 25 acres (10 hectares) that will be designed to divert water from canals and capture storm runoff - as well as other green infrastructure such as new parks and redesigned streets with trees, grassy areas and ponds.
COASTAL MASTER PLAN
New Orleans is the state's largest city, with a population of just under 400,000, but Louisiana as a whole is responding rapidly to ongoing land loss and an increased risk of flooding.
According to a study released by the U.S. Geological Society, Louisiana is suffering loss of its wetlands at a rate of a football field an hour.
"After Hurricane Katrina, people started to get really serious about coastal issues," said Denise Reed, research professor at the University of New Orleans and a key technical advisor on the state-led Coastal Master Plan.
The first such master plan was mandated by the state legislature following Katrina, but earlier versions were more of a "wish list", Reed said.
The latest plan - drawn up by the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority and approved in 2017 - outlines priority projects requiring investment of $50 billion.
The money is needed to rebuild barrier islands and wetlands, move water and sediment from the Mississippi River to make new marshes, construct levees and flood gates, raise houses, and in some cases buy property so homeowners can move to a safer place.
"We all have to be creative with expenditure," Reed told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.
"In the area where I live, we've passed a sales tax, so every time you go to the store to buy something, a penny or two goes into a pot used for building a levee."
SINKING LAND, RISING SEAS
In a boat heading to the marshlands off the coast of Cocodrie, a shrimping and crabbing village in southeast Louisiana, Alex Kolker, associate professor at the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, pointed to large industrial structures protruding from the water.
"Something in the order of 20 to 30 percent of the nation's oil infrastructure is in the Gulf of Mexico," said the oceanologist and coastal geologist. "It's a multi-billion, if not multi-trillion investment - and much of it is at, or very near, sea level."
The extractive industry is at risk from rising seas and storms, but is also a key reason why Louisiana is subsiding, he explained. When oil and gas are taken from the ground, a vacuum is created and the land sinks into it.
Research by Kolker and others shows that much of the subsidence affecting Louisiana's coast relates to these patterns of oil and gas withdrawal.
In the last century, most of the increase in the water level was due to the ground sinking, but as global sea levels rise, that is changing.
"The biggest variable for the future of Louisiana is sea level rise," said Kolker. He pointed to predictions the United States will see an average increase of about 1 cm (0.39 inches) a year by 2050.
"Those are the kind of rates that we experienced at the end of last Ice Age. That would be very, very disruptive - to New York, to London and Tokyo," he said.
Against that background, lessons being learned in Louisiana will be invaluable for the rest of the world, Kolker believes.
Back in New Orleans, Tucker's community has already experienced the full force of wild weather.
Even though he is aware that those with fewer means may struggle to be as resilient as wealthier residents, he is determined not to be cowed by the growing threat.
"I know that the water's not going anywhere," he said. "But politicians, developers, poor people, rich people, people with many resources, people with little - we're all in this together."
Source: Thomson Reuters Foundation News