Butea frondosa

Butea frondosa

NAME:  Butea frondosa

FAMILY: Papilionaceae

COMMON NAMES: Flame of the forest, Bastard Teak, بو تيه  Bûtîyah, Butée à une graine,

LOCAL NAMES: Palash, Kinshuk

USEFUL PART(s): Leaves, Bark, Flowers, seeds

GENERAL USES:

  • The leaves can be used to feed farm animal

  • The wood can be used  in carpentry

  • The plant is used in beautifying the environment

  • The gum of the tree is used in cooking dishes

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • India

  • Nigeria

  • Bangladesh

  • Nepal

  • Sri Lanka

  • Myanmar

  • Thailand

  • Laos

  • Cambodia

  • Malaysia

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Butea frondosa medicinal values include

  • Aphorodisiac

  • Astringent

  • Diuretic

  • Diabetes

  • Leucorrhoea

  • Antiseptic

  • Anthelmintic

  • Cough

  • Cold

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Ornamental value

FUN FACT

  • Butea frondosa is a slowing growing moderate-sized deciduous tree, growing up to 49 ft tall.

·         it is called after the Earl of Bute, a patron of botany.

FURTHER READINGS

Das, C., Dash, S., & Sahoo, D. C. (2012). Pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigation of Butea frondosa linn. bark. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 4(2), 475–482.

Goswami, S. K., Inamdar, M. N., Pandre, M. K., Jamwal, R., & Dethe, S. (2013). Erectogenic and aphrodisiac effects of butea frondosa koenig ex roxb. in Rats: Involvement of enzyme inhibition. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/874894

Malik, J., Kumar, M., Deshmukh, R., & Kumar, P. (2013). Ameliorating effect of lyophilized extract of Butea frondosa leaves on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 51(2), 233–239. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2012.717229

Burkea Africana

Burkea Africana.jpg

 NAME:  Burkea africana

FAMILY: Caesalpiniaceae

COMMON NAMES: Burkea,wild seriga

LOCAL NAMES: Apasa, orusi, Fula-Fulfulde

USEFUL PART(s): Bark, twigs

GENERAL USES:

  • The wood of the plant is used for heavy construction, flooring, furniture, railway sleepers, poles and so on

  • The wood is used for firewood and to produce charcoal

  • Young leaves and flower are edible and are eaten as vegetables

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Senegal

  • Sudan

  • Uganda

  • Namibia

  • Botswana

  • Mozambique

  • South Africa

  • Nigeria

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Burkea africana medicinal values include

  • Septic sores

  • Headache

  • Astringent

  • Fever

  • Cough

  • Catarrh

  • Pneumonia

  • menorrhoea

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

FUN FACT

  • Burkea africana is a  deciduous, attractive tree normally with a scattered, flat crown mainly reaching 10 m tall;  sometimes low shrub, rarel specimens can be about 20 m

  • It is common in deciduous woodland and in wooded grass-like vegetation  at elevations from 40 - 1,740 m

FURTHER READINGS

Eboji, O., Spies, L., Sowemimo, A., Koekemoer, T., Sofidiya, M., & Van de Venter, M. (2016). Cytotoxic Activity Of The Ethanolic Extract Of The Bark Of Burkea Africana Hook. (Caesalpinaceae). Planta Medica, 82(5), PC73. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1578775

Eboji, O., Venables, L., Sowemimo, A. A., Sofidiya, M. O., Koekemoer, T., & Van de Venter, M. (2017). Burkea africana Hook (Caesalpiniaceae) ethanolic extract causes cell cycle arrest at M phase and induces caspase dependent apoptosis. South African Journal of Botany, 112, 361–367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2017.06.013

Buchholzia coriacea

Buchholzia coriacea

NAME:  Buchholzia coriacea

FAMILY: Sterculiaceae

COMMON NAMES: Wonderful kola, oignon de gorille

LOCAL NAMES: Uworo, obi-ata

USEFUL PART(s): Fruit, bark

GENERAL USES:

  • The fruits are most times consumed after boiling

  • The seed is chewed as a replacement for kola nuts

  • The wood is at times used in house construction.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Guinea

  • Sierra Leone

  • Cameroon

  • Gabon

  • Ivory Coast

  • Nigeria

  • Ghana

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Buchholzia coriacea medicinal values include

  • Antimicrobials

  • Respiratory disorders

  • Dysmenorrhoea

  • Ulcer

  • Fibroid

  • Chest pains

  • Anthelminthics

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

FUN FACT

  • Buchholzia coriacea is an evergreen undergrowth tree of the lowland rain-forest about to 20 metres tall, ranging from Guinea to West Cameroons, and in East Cameroun and Gabon.

  • The seeds have peppery taste

FURTHER READINGS

Ezike, A. C., Onyeto, C. A., Nwabunike, I. A., Mbaoji, F. N., Attah, B. E., Amanambu, S. O., & Okoli, C. O. (2015). Anti-inflammatory activity of Buchholzia coriacea Engl. (Capparaceae) leaf extract: Evaluation of components of the inflammatory response involved. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 12(2), 153–158. https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2014-0046

Ijarotimi, O. S., Malomo, S. A., Fagbemi, T. N., Osundahunsi, O. F., & Aluko, R. E. (2018). Structural and functional properties of Buchholzia coriacea seed flour and protein concentrate at different pH and protein concentrations. Food Hydrocolloids, 74, 275–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.08.018

Salami, A. T., Odukanmi, O. A., Faniyan, O. F., Omayone, T. P., & Olaleye, S. B. (2017). Seeds of Buchholzia coriacea in Diet Mitigate Ischemic Reperfusion–Induced Gastric Ulceration in Experimental Rats. Journal of Dietary Supplements, pp. 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2017.1404544

Brysocarpus coccineus

Brysocarpus coccineus.jpg

NAME:  Brysocarpus coccineus

FAMILY: Connaraceae

COMMON NAMES: Crimson thyme

LOCAL NAMES: Amuje wewe, ade,Kimbar maharbe,Oka abole,Mgba apepea

USEFUL PART(s): Root, leaves

GENERAL USES:

  • The plant is use to decorate the environment

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Nigeria

  • Togo

  • Ghana

  • Senegal

  • Guinea Bissau

  • Sierra Leone

  • Ivory coast

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Brysocarpus coccineus medicinal values include

  • Jaundice

  • Pile

  • Gonorrhea

  • venereal disease

  • impotence

  • anti-tumour

  • ulcer

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Ornamental value

FUN FACT

  • Brysocarpus coccineus is a climbing  woody vine of savanna copse and secondary jungle, widely distributed from Guinea to West Cameroons, and in other parts of tropical Africa

FURTHER READINGS

Adedosu, O. T., Adejoke, T. T., Salako, O. O., & Olorunsogo, O. O. (2012). Effects of extracts of the leaves of brysocarpus coccineus on rat liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT) pore. Afr J Med Med Sci, 41 Suppl, 125–132. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23678647

Couturier, M., Navarro, D., Chevret, D., Henrissat, B., Piumi, F., Ruiz-Dueñas, F. J., … Rosso, M. N. (2015). Enhanced degradation of softwood versus hardwood by the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus coccineus. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-015-0407-8

Szymańska, R., & Kruk, J. (2013). Activity of tocopherol oxidase in Phaseolus coccineus seedlings. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35(8), 2539–2545. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-013-1289-7

Bryoria Africana

Bryoria Africana

NAME:   Bryoria africana

FAMILY: Cucurbitaceae

COMMON NAMES: Roots

LOCAL NAMES:

USEFUL PART(s): Roots

GENERAL USES:

  • The plan is primarily used for its medicinal value

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Nigeria

  • Cameroon

  • Ghana

  • Togo

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Bryoria africana medicinal values include

  • Purgative

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

FUN FACT

  • Bryoria africana is a plant native to Africa

FURTHER READINGS

Boluda, C. G., Divakar, P. K., Hawksworth, D. L., Villagra, J., & Rico, V. J. (2015). Molecular studies reveal a new species of Bryoria in Chile. The Lichenologist, 47(6), 387–394. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0024282915000298

Nadyeina, O., Cornejo, C., Boluda, C. G., Myllys, L., Rico, V. J., Crespo, A., & Scheidegger, C. (2014). Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Lichen-Forming Fungi of Bryoria Section Implexae (Parmeliaceae). Applications in Plant Sciences, 2(7), 1400037. https://doi.org/10.3732/apps.1400037

Bryophyllum pinnatum

Bryophyllum pinnatum.jpg

NAME: Bryophyllum pinnatum  

FAMILY: Crassulaceae

COMMON NAMES: Resurrection plant, cathedral bells, life plant, Mariyaphilan

LOCAL NAMES: Eru-odundun, abomoda, Panfuti

USEFUL PART(s): Leaves, roots, leaf sap

GENERAL USES:

  • The plant is use for its medicinal value

  • It is also use to decorate the environment

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Madagascar

  • Hawaii

  • India

  • Phillipines

  • Australia

  • New Zealand

  • Indonesia

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Bryophyllum pinnatum medicinal values include

  • Cough

  • Diarrhea

  • Dysentery

  • Wounds

  • Fever

  • Diuretic

  • abscesses,

  • antifungal

  • epilepsy

  • antimicrobial

  • anticancer

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Ornamental value

  • Invasive plant

  • Environmental weed

FUN FACT

  • Bryophyllum pinnatum is a long-lived, succulent non woody plant with erect stems usually growing up to 1.2m high, but can reach up to 2 m at times.

  • Leaves are simple or compound, with three or five small plant leaves.

  • Poisonous to both man and animal

FURTHER READINGS

Braz, D. C., Oliveira, L. R. S., & Viana, A. F. S. C. (2013). Atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 15(1), 86–90. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-05722013000100012

Chibli, L. A., Rodrigues, K. C. M., Gasparetto, C. M., Pinto, N. C. C., Fabri, R. L., Scio, E., … Sousa, O. V. (2014). Anti-inflammatory effects of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken ethanol extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 154(2), 330–338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.03.035

Lambrigger-Steiner, C., Simões-Wüst, A. P., Kuck, A., Fürer, K., Hamburger, M., & Von Mandach, U. (2014). Sleep quality in pregnancy during treatment with Bryophyllum pinnatum: An observational study. Phytomedicine, 21(5), 753–757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2013.11.003

Brunfelsia uniflora

Brunfelsia uniflora.jpg

NAME:  Brunfelsia uniflora

FAMILY: Solanaceae

COMMON NAMES: Manacá

LOCAL NAMES:

USEFUL PART(s): Roots

GENERAL USES:

  • Oil derived from the flower is use in making perfume

  • The plant is also used for its medicinal value

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Brazil

  • Bolivia

  • Peru

  • Ecuador

  • Colombia

  • Venezuela

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Brunfelsia uniflora medicinal values include

  • Aphorodisiacs

  • Abortifacient

  • antirheumatic

  • anaesthetic,

  • blood cleanser

  • diaphoretic

  • diuretic

  • emetic

  • emmenagogue

  • laxative

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

·         Ornamental value

FUN FACT

  • Brunfelsia uniflora is a moderate-sized, evergreen woody or small tree with scattered branches; it normally grows 0.5 - 3 metres high, but at times growing up to 8 metres

  • The whole plant contains a very toxic alkaloid known as manacine; extract from the root is used as part of arrows poison.

FURTHER READINGS

Graham, J., & Janovec, J. (2016). A remarkable new species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae) from the eastern Andes of Central Peru. PhytoKeys, 75, 81–91. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.75.10759

Jorge, L. F., Meniqueti, A. B., Silva, R. F., Santos, K. A., Da Silva, E. A., Gonçalves, J. E., … Linde, G. A. (2017). Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of oleoresin from leaves and flowers of brunfelsia uniflora. Genetics and Molecular Research, 16(3). https://doi.org/10.4238/gmr16039714

Thiesen, L. C. T., Sugauara, E. Y. Y., Tešević, V., Glamočlija, J., Soković, M., Gonçalves, J. E., … Colauto, N. B. (2017). Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Brunfelsia uniflora flower oleoresin extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. Genetics and Molecular Research, 16(2). https://doi.org/10.4238/gmr16029548

Brucea antidysenterica

brucea.jpg

NAME:  Brucea antidysenterica

FAMILY:  Simaroubaceae

COMMON NAMES: bitter bark tree

LOCAL NAMES: aballo, m'fankta

USEFUL PART(s): Root bark

GENERAL USES:

  • The plant is used for its medicinal value

  • The wood is used as firewood and for construction in roof

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Guinea

  • Nigeria

  • Ethiopia

  • Angola

  • Malawi

  • Zambia

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Brucea antidysenterica medicinal values include

  • Cancer

  • Dysentery

  • Anthelmintic

  • Fever

  • Diarrhea

  • Indigestion

  • stomach-ache

FUN FACT

  • Brucea antidysenterica is a monoecious woody or small tree about 7 m tall used in local medicine

  • The fruit is bitter and said to be poisonous to farm animal

FURTHER READINGS

Chen, M., Chen, R., Wang, S., Tan, W., Hu, Y., Peng, X., & Wang, Y. (2012). Chemical components, pharmacological properties, and nanoparticulate delivery systems of Brucea javanica. International Journal of Nanomedicine. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S31636

Dong, S. H., Liu, J., Ge, Y. Z., Dong, L., Xu, C. H., Ding, J., & Yue, J. M. (2013). Chemical constituents from Brucea javanica. Phytochemistry, 85, 175–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.08.018

Kefe, A., Giday, M., Mamo, H., & Erko, B. (2016). Antimalarial properties of crude extracts of seeds of Brucea antidysenterica and leaves of Ocimum lamiifolium. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1098-9

Brillantaisia patula

1200px-Brillantaisia_owariensis,_blare,_Manie_van_der_Schijff_BT_2.jpg

NAME:  Brillantaisia patula

FAMILY: Acanthaceae

COMMON NAMES: Brillantaisia

LOCAL NAMES: Owo, lementoko, iwèlè-wèlè

USEFUL PART(s): Leaves

GENERAL USES:

  • It is use to beautify the environment

  • It is also used for its medicinal value

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Cameroon

  • Congo

  • Uganda

  • Angola

  • Nigeria

  • Gabon

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Brillantaisia patula medicinal values include

  • Yaws

  • Diarrhea

  • Ease labour

  • Dysmenorrhoea

  • Chest pain

  • Convulsion

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Ornamental

FUN FACT

  • Brillantaisia patula is strong woody plant up to 6-10 ft. high; it can be from Togo to West Cameroons and across the Congo basin to Uganda and Angola.

  • It has relatively great size violet-purple flowers; the upper lip is yellow and purple-blotched.

FURTHER READINGS

Faparusi, F., Bello-Akinosho, M. M., Oyede, R. T., Adewole, A., Bankole, P. O., & Ali, F. F. (2012). Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Brillantaisia patula leaf. Research Journal of Phytochemistry, 6(1), 9–16. https://doi.org/10.3923/rjphyto.2012.9.16

Olufunke, M. D., Zaki, F. U., & Adeleke, O. (2009). Esse ntial oils of stem and leaf from nigerian brillantaisia patula t. and. var. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants, 12(5), 569–573. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2009.10643759

Bridelia micrantha

euph_bridelia_micrantha_14_guebau_238_19a603.jpg

NAME:  Bridelia micrantha

FAMILY: Euphorbiaceae

COMMON NAMES: Mitzeeri sweetberry, Yoruba ironwood, mwiza

LOCAL NAMES: Isa,asa,Oga ofia,Edede

USEFUL PART(s): Leaves, roots,bark

GENERAL USES:

  • The wood is used for furniture, poles, mortars, spoons and tool handles.

  • It also serve as fuel and for charcoal production

  • The leaves are fed to farm animals

  • The fruits are edible and sweet

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Togo

  • Rwanda

  • Mali

  • Malawi

  • Kenya

  • Central Africa Republic

  • Tanzania

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Bridelia micrantha medicinal values include

  • Laxative

  • Headache

  • Migraine

  • Cough

  • Diarrhoea

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

FUN FACT

  • Bridelia micrantha is a medium to tall, deciduous or evergreen tree reaching 20 m high with a thick spreading canopy; leaves are simple, large and alternate.

  • They are found growing along forest margins, in coastal forests, swamp forest and woodland.

FURTHER READINGS

Adesina, J. M., Ileke, K. D., Yallappa, R., & Ofuya, T. I. (2016). Insecticidal evaluation of bridelia micrantha and dalbergia lactea aqueous extracts for the control of podagrica uniforma (Jacoby) and nisotra dilecta (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chysomelidae) infestation on okra. Agrivita, 38(3), 269–274. https://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v38i3.845

Maroyi, A. (2017). Ethnopharmacology and therapeutic value of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill. in tropical Africa: A comprehensive review. Molecules. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091493

Mburu, C., Kareru, P., Kipyegon, C., Madivoli, E., Maina, E., Kairigo, P., … Marikah, D. (2016). Phytochemical Screening of Crude Extracts of Bridelia micrantha. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 16(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2016/26649

 

Brillantaisia nitens

NAME: Brillantaisia nitens  

FAMILY: Acanthaceae

COMMON NAMES: Tropical Giant Sage

LOCAL NAMES: Ogwumadibia, pedjindo, bolobolo,

USEFUL PART(s): Leaves

GENERAL USES:

  • Extracts from the leaves can be use in making soaps

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Sierra Leone

  • Ghana

  • Guinea

  • Nigeria

  • Cameroon

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Brillantaisia nitens  medicinal values include

  • Diarrhoea

  • pain-killers

  • ear treatments

  • antiaborifacients

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

FUN FACT

  • Brillantaisia nitens is a perennial herb about 3 m tall, of wet areas in the forest zone, and reaching mountain elevations.

FURTHER READINGS

Adams, P. R., Musk, R., & Blake, R. (2017). Establishing Eucalyptus nitens plantations using controlled-release fertilisers. Australian Forestry, 80(5), 309–316. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049158.2017.1387995

Akah, P. A., Okolo, C. E., Okoye, T. C., & Offiah, N. V. (2010). Aqueous extract and methanol fractions of the leaves of Brillantaisia nitens Lindau. reverses phenylhydrazine - Induced anaemia in rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(3), 271–277. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-77649088907&partnerID=40&md5=69334e1816e94e34285b14959b822c2e

Nembo, E. N., Dimo, T., Bopda, O. S. M., Hescheler, J., & Nguemo, F. (2014). The proliferative and chronotropic effects of Brillantaisia nitens Lindau (Acanthaceae) extracts on pluripotent stem cells and their cardiomyocytes derivatives. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 156, 73–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.07.046

Bridelia ferruginea

009837.jpg

NAME:  Bridelia ferruginea

FAMILY: Euphorbiaceae

COMMON NAMES: Ira

LOCAL NAMES: Ira, ira odan, ira eju,Kirni,Ola,okuk, da-fing saba

USEFUL PART(s): Leaves, bark,roots,fruits

GENERAL USES:

  • The wood is use to make granary

  • It also serves as fuel

  • Liquid from the wood is use for glazing in pottery

  • Extracts from  the plant is use for dyeing clothes

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Niger

  • Nigeria

  • Ghana

  • Sierra Leone

  • Togo

  • Ivory Coast

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Bridelia ferruginea medicinal values include

  • Insomnia

  • Antipyretic

  • general care in children

  • diabetes

  • antibacterials

  • dysentery

  • mouth wash

  • gonorrhoea

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

FUN FACT

  • Bridelia ferruginea is a straggly tree about 15 m tall with crooked trunk up to 1.80 m in circumference; the commonest species ranging from Guinea and Mali to S Nigeria, and throughout the wooded savanna regions of Africa.

  • The tree is said to drip water all through the dry season in Sierra Leone and it is fire-resistant.

FURTHER READINGS

Awodele, O., Amagon, K. I., Agbo, J., & Prasad, M. N. V. (2015). Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae) in rodents. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 8(2), 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1515/intox-2015-0014

Bakoma, B., Berké, B., Eklu-Gadegbeku, K., Agbonon, A., Aklikokou, K., Gbeassor, M., & Moore, N. (2014). Effect of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) ethyl acetate and acetone fractions on insulin resistance in fructose drinking mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 153(3), 896–899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.03.065

Brassica Oleracea Var Capitata

Starr_070730-7852_Brassica_oleracea_var__capitata.jpg

NAME:  Brassica oleracea var capitata

FAMILY: Cruciferae

COMMON NAMES: Cabbage, sea cabbage, col blanca, chou pommé, kan lan, karanb

LOCAL NAMES: Kabeji, Spitzkohl, cavolo cappucio

USEFUL PART(s): Leaves, seeds

GENERAL USES:

  • Cabbage can be eaten raw or cooked and also processed

  • It also serve as fodder for farm animals

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • China

  • Germany

  • Nigeria

  • Italy

  • Netherland

  • Japan

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Brassica oleracea var capitata medicinal values include

  • Antimicrobial

  • skin diseases

  • rheumatism

  • sore throat

  • hoarseness

  • colic

  • pneumonia

  • appendicitis

  • ulcers

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

FUN FACT

  • A cabbage plant is a big bud that forms into a head including intersecting leaves encircled by a rosette of outer leaves close to the ground; it is a field crop.

  • Cabbage heads can be green, purple or white; ranges from 0.5 to 4 kilograms.

FURTHER READINGS

Liu, X. ping, Yang, C., Han, F. qing, Fang, Z. yuan, Yang, L. mei, Zhuang, M., … Zhang, Y. yong. (2016). Genetics and fine mapping of a yellow-green leaf gene (ygl-1) in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.). Molecular Breeding, 36(6). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-016-0509-4

Yuan, S., Su, Y., Liu, Y., Li, Z., Fang, Z., Yang, L., … Sun, P. (2015). Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.). Frontiers in Plant Science, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.01118

Boswellia spp

Boswellia_sacra.jpg

NAME:  Boswellia spp

FAMILY: Burseraceae

COMMON NAMES: Frankincense, Olibanum, Olibano, al-maṣṭikaالمصطكىs

LOCAL NAMES: Juguuhi

USEFUL PART(s): Bark

GENERAL USES:

  • Boswelia spp are used as a source of frankincense

  • It is used for religious activities

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • China

  • Somalia

  • India

  • South Arabia

  • Cameroon

  • Nigeria

 

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Boswellia spp medicinal values include

  • Anti-inflammatory

  • Anti snake venom

  • antiproliferative effect on tumors

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

FUN FACT

  • Boswellia spp are flowering plants of moderate-sized, consisting both trees and shrubs, and are indigenous  to tropical regions of Africa and Asia

  • There are four major species of Boswellia which produce true frankincense; Boswellia carteri, Boswellia  frereana, Boswellia  papyrifera, and Boswellia serrata.

FURTHER READINGS

Attorre, F., Taleb, N., De Sanctis, M., Farcomeni, A., Guillet, A., & Vitale, M. (2011). Developing conservation strategies for endemic tree species when faced with time and data constraints: Boswellia spp. on Socotra (Yemen). Biodiversity and Conservation, 20(7), 1483–1499. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-011-0039-7

Younoussa, L., Nukenine, E. N., & Esimone, C. O. (2016). Toxicity of Boswellia dalzielii (Burseraceae) Leaf Fractions Against Immature Stages of Anopheles gambiae (Giles) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). International Journal of Insect Science, 8, 23–31. https://doi.org/10.4137/IJIS.S37188

Alstonia Congensis

alstonia_congoensis_lokoli_benin_aug_2017_108_7510_a24970.jpg

NAME:  Alstonia congensis

FAMILY: Apocynaceae

COMMON NAMES: Stool wood, Alstonia, Cheese wood, Emien, Songati

LOCAL NAMES: Ahun, Egbu, Egbu-ora

USEFUL PART(s):  Bark

GENERAL USES:

  • The wood is used for little construction, light carpentry work e.g. crates, boxes etc.

  • It is also used in the production of household tools

  • The timber is also traded internationally

 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Nigeria

  • DR Congo

  • Angola

  • Central African Republic

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Alstonia congensis medicinal values include:

  • Malaria

  • Astringent

  • Toothache

  • Malaria

  • Gonorrhea

  • Diarrhoea

  • Rheumatism

  • Anthelmintic

  • Leucorrhoea

  • Ulcers

  • Scabies

  • Headache

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Ornamental purpose

  • Shade tree

FUNFUL FACT

  • Alstonia congensis is a tall forest tree about 25-30 m high, the stem is cylindrical and it has a rough bark.

 

FURTHER READINGS

Akinnawo, O. O., Anyasor, G. N., & Osilesi, O. (2017). Aqueous fraction of Alstonia boonei de Wild leaves suppressed inflammatory responses in carrageenan and formaldehyde induced arthritic rats. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 86, 95–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.11.145

Al-Henhena, N., Ying, R. P. Y., Ismail, S., Najm, W., Khalifa, S. A. M., El-Seedi, H., & Abdulla, M. A. (2014). Chemopreventive efficacy of Andrographis paniculata on azoxymethane-induced aberrant colon crypt foci in vivo. PLoS ONE, 9(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111118

Bagheri, G., Mirzaei, M., Mehrabi, R., & Sharifi-Rad, J. (2016). Cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of alstonia scholaris, alstonia venenata and moringa oleifera plants from India. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.17795/jjnpp-31129

Chime S.A, Ugwuoke E.C, Onyishi I.V, Brown S.A, O. G. . (2013). and Evaluation of Alstonia boonei Stem Bark Powder Tablets. Indian Journal Pharmaceutics Science, 2(April), 226–230.

Khyade, M. S., Kasote, D. M., & Vaikos, N. P. (2014). Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. and Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don: A comparative review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.01.025

Li, C. J., Chen, S., Sun, C., Zhang, L., Shi, X., & Wu, S. J. (2017). Cytotoxic monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Alstonia yunnanensis Diels. Fitoterapia, 117, 79–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2016.12.011

Omoregie, E., Oriakhi, K., Oikeh, E., Okugbo, O., & Akpobire, D. (2014). Comparative study of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of Alstonia boonei and Eupatorium odoratum. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 22(3&4), 91–97. https://doi.org/10.4314/njbas.v22i3.7

Pan, L., Terrazas, C., Acuña, U. M., Ninh, T. N., Chai, H., Carcache de Blanco, E. J., … Kinghorn, A. D. (2014). Bioactive indole alkaloids isolated from Alstonia angustifolia. Phytochemistry Letters, 10, liv–lix. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2014.06.010

Ragasa, C. Y., Lim, K. F., Shen, C. C., & Raga, D. D. (2015). Hypoglycemic Potential of Triterpenes from Alstonia scholaris. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 49(1), 30–33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11094-015-1217-9

Thomas, S. K., Kunjumon, M., George, R. E., & Iyer, T. V. (2015). A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA VENENATA R. BR. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research IJPSR, 6(4), 1741–1745. https://doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(4).1741-45

 

Alstonia Boonei

boonei.jpg

NAME:  Alstonia boonei

FAMILY: Apocynaceae

COMMON NAMES: Stool wood, Pattern wood, Cheese wood

LOCAL NAMES: Awun, Ahun, Eghu, Akpi, Onyame dua

USEFUL PART(s):  Root, bark, leaves

GENERAL USES:

  • The wood is use for construction and carving

  • The plant produces good timber which can be traded internationally

  • The wood is used for fuel as firewood

 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Ethiopia

  • Tanzania

  • Egypt

  • Cameroon

  • Central African Republic

  • Ghana

  • Cote D’Ivoire

  • Nigeria

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Alstonia boonei medicinal values include:

  • Breast development

  • Filaria worms

  • Anthelmintics

  • Antidote

  • Malaria fever

  • Yellow fever

  • Anti-periodic

  • Arthritis

  • Antimalarial

  • Aphrodisiac

  • Dysmenorrhoea

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • It is a good shade tree for crops

FUNFUL FACT

  • Alstonia boonei is a tall, deciduous, evergreen forest tree which height can reach 145ft in damp areas

  • The leaves are  oblanceolate, and in whorls at nodes and can be propagated by seeds

  • The latex from is toxic

FURTHER READINGS

Agbedahunsi, J. M., Adepiti, A. O., Adedini, A. A., Akinsomisoye, A., & Adepitan, O. (2016). Antimalarial Properties of Morinda lucida and Alstonia boonei on Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Curcuma longa on Quinine in Mice. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants, 22(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/10496475.2014.999151

Akinnawo, O. O., Anyasor, G. N., & Osilesi, O. (2017). Aqueous fraction of Alstonia boonei de Wild leaves suppressed inflammatory responses in carrageenan and formaldehyde induced arthritic rats. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 86, 95–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.11.145

Chime S.A, Ugwuoke E.C, Onyishi I.V, Brown S.A, O. G. . (2013). and Evaluation of Alstonia boonei Stem Bark Powder Tablets. Indian Journal Pharmaceutics Science, 2(April), 226–230.

Erhunse, N., Oriakhi, K., Orhue, N. E. J., & Omoregie, E. S. (2016). Comparative study on phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and acute toxicity of extracts of Alstonia boonei de Wild and Anthocleista djalonensis. Journal, 13(1), 14–24. https://doi.org/10.4314/jpb.v13i1.3

Idowu, E. T., Ajaegbu, H. C. N., Omotayo, A. I., Aina, O. O., & Otubanjo, O. A. (2015). In vivo anti-plasmodial activities and toxic impacts of lime extract of a combination of Picralima nitida, Alstonia boonei and Gongronema latifolium in mice infected with Chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei. African Health Sciences, 15(4), 1262–1270. https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i4.27

Lucien Nkono Ya Nkono, B., Dongmo Sokeng, S., Djomeni Paul Désiré, D., & Kamtchouing, P. (2014). Antihyperglycemic and Antioxydant Properties of Alstonia boonei De Wild. (Apocynaceae) Stem Bark Aqueous Extract in Dexamethasone-Induced Hyperglycemic Rats. International Journal of Diabetes Research, 3(3), 27–35. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.diabetes.20140303.01

Ogueke, C. C., Uwaleke, J., Owuamanam, C. I., & Okolue, B. (2014). Antimicrobial activities of Alstonia boonei stem bark, a Nigerian traditional medicinal plant. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 4(S2), S957–S962. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60766-0

Omoregie, E., Oriakhi, K., Oikeh, E., Okugbo, O., & Akpobire, D. (2014). Comparative study of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of Alstonia boonei and Eupatorium odoratum. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 22(3&4), 91–97. https://doi.org/10.4314/njbas.v22i3.7

Sarpong, L. M., Sarpong, F. M., & Amponsah, I. K. (2016). Antiplasmodial activity of the leaves and stem bark of Carapa procera and Alstonia boonei. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 8(3), 116–122.

Aloe Vera

Aloe vera.jpg

NAME:  Aloe vera

FAMILY: Liliaceae

COMMON NAMES: Barbados Aloe, wonder plant

LOCAL NAMES: Barbados Aloe

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves juice

GENERAL USES:

  • Aloe vera is use in flavouring food

  • It is use in cosmetics in creams and lotions

 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • China

  • Japan

  •  India

  • Greece

  • Egypt,

  • Mexico

  • Morocco

  • Mauritania

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Aloe vera medicinal values include:

  • Purgative

  • Guineaworms

  • Hair care

  • Skin diseases

  • Constipation

  • Wound

  • Diabetes

  • Amenorrhoea

  • Breast cancer

  • Depression and learning

  • Immune booster

  • Teeth and Gum treatment

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Ornamental purpose

FUNFUL FACT

  • Aloe vera  is an evergreen, succulent, short-stemmed plant and form a packed rosette

FURTHER READINGS

Ahlawat, K. S., & Khatkar, B. S. (2011). Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0229-z

Basmatker, G., Jais, N., & Daud, F. (2011). Aloe vera : A valuable multifunctional cosmetic ingredient. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 1(3), 338–341.

Bharat, C. R., & Krishna, G. D. (2017). GC-MS analysis of young leaves of allophylus cobbe (L.) raeusch. and allophylus serratus (Roxb.) Kurz. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 51(3), 472–479. https://doi.org/10.5530/ijper.51.3.75

Chavan, R. B., & Gaikwad, D. K. (2016a). the Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Allophylus Species Used in Traditional Medicine: a Review. Www.wjpps.com World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(11), 664–682. https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpps201611-8039

Chavan, R. B., & Gaikwad, D. K. (2016b). the Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Allophylus Species Used in Traditional Medicine: a Review. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(11), 664–682. https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpps201611-8039

González, V. V., Solís, S. M., & Ferrucci, M. S. (2014). Anatomía reproductiva en flores estaminadas y pistiladas de Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae). Boletin de La Sociedad Argentina de Botanica, 49(2), 207–216.

Manigandan, T., Elumalai, M., Cholan, P., Kaur, R., & Mangaiyarkarasi, S. (2015). Benefits of Aloe vera in dentistry. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 7(5), 257. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.155943

Mukherjee, P. K., Nema, N. K., Maity, N., Mukherjee, K., & Harwansh, R. K. (2014). Phytochemical and therapeutic profile of Aloe vera. Journal of Natural Remedies, 14(1), 1–26. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84902965077&partnerID=tZOtx3y1

Oladosu, I. A., Balogun, S. O., & Liu, Z. Q. (2015). Chemical constituents of Allophylus africanus. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 13(2), 0133–0141. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(15)60017-6

Radha, M., & Laxmipriya, N. (2015). Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 5, 21–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.10.006

Rahman, S., Carter, P., & Bhattarai, N. (2017). Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications. Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 8(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8010006

Sánchez-Machado, D. I., López-Cervantes, J., Sendón, R., & Sanches-Silva, A. (2017). Aloe vera : Ancient knowledge with new frontiers. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 61, 94–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.12.005

Sujatha, G., Senthil Kumar, G., Muruganandan, J., & Srinivasa Prasad, T. (2014). Aloe vera in dentistry. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/8382.4983

Aloe Barteri

Aloe barteri.jpg

NAME:  Aloe barteri

FAMILY: Liliaceae

COMMON NAMES: Aloe

LOCAL NAMES: Eti erin, Ida-egun, Ida-orisa, Moda, bangio fauru, sogoba hu

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves

GENERAL USES:

  • Aloe barteri  is majorly a medicinal plant

 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Senegal

  • Ghana

  • Nigeria

  • Malawi

  • Zambia

  • Togo

  • Ivory coast

WHY IS IT GREEN?

 Aloe barteri medicinal values include:

  • Ringworm

  • Anthelmintics

  • Aphrodisiac

  • Amenorrhoea

  • Cough

  • Skin infections

  • Astringent

  • Antitumour

  • Pile

  • Fruits for preventing snake bite

  • Malaria

  • Rheumatism

 

FUNFUL FACT

  • Aloe barteri is a plant with fleshy leaves organized in a rosette and it is 3ft high.

  • The plant has about 12 branches with bulbs that have different colours such as green-yellow, dull red, red.

FURTHER READINGS

Bharat, C. R., & Krishna, G. D. (2017). GC-MS analysis of young leaves of allophylus cobbe (L.) raeusch. and allophylus serratus (Roxb.) Kurz. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 51(3), 472–479. https://doi.org/10.5530/ijper.51.3.75

Chavan, R. B., & Gaikwad, D. K. (2016a). the Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Allophylus Species Used in Traditional Medicine: a Review. Www.wjpps.com World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(11), 664–682. https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpps201611-8039

Chavan, R. B., & Gaikwad, D. K. (2016b). the Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Allophylus Species Used in Traditional Medicine: a Review. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(11), 664–682. https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpps201611-8039

González, V. V., Solís, S. M., & Ferrucci, M. S. (2014). Anatomía reproductiva en flores estaminadas y pistiladas de Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae). Boletin de La Sociedad Argentina de Botanica, 49(2), 207–216.

Mukherjee, P. K., Nema, N. K., Maity, N., Mukherjee, K., & Harwansh, R. K. (2014). Phytochemical and therapeutic profile of Aloe vera. Journal of Natural Remedies, 14(1), 1–26. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84902965077&partnerID=tZOtx3y1

Oladosu, I. A., Balogun, S. O., & Liu, Z. Q. (2015). Chemical constituents of Allophylus africanus. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 13(2), 0133–0141. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(15)60017-6

Radha, M. H., & Laxmipriya, N. P. (2015). Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.10.006

Rahman, S., Carter, P., & Bhattarai, N. (2017). Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications. Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 8(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8010006

Sánchez-Machado, D. I., López-Cervantes, J., Sendón, R., & Sanches-Silva, A. (2017). Aloe vera : Ancient knowledge with new frontiers. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 61, 94–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.12.005

Sofidiya, M. O., Imeh, E., Ezeani, C., Aigbe, F. R., & Akindele, A. J. (2014). Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Alafia barteri. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 24(3), 348–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2014.07.013

Sujatha, G., Senthil Kumar, G., Muruganandan, J., & Srinivasa Prasad, T. (2014). Aloe vera in dentistry. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/8382.4983

Ye, C.-L., Dai, D.-H., & Hu, W.-L. (2013). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from onion (Allium cepa L.). Food Control, 30(1), 48–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.033

Allophylus Africanus

allophylus_africanus_wamccl_dsc_1170_78_5dcb57.jpg

NAME:  Allophylus africanus 

FAMILY: Sapindaceae

COMMON NAMES: African false currant, African allophylus

LOCAL NAMES: Eekan-ehoro, Alarto, Odu-oko, banotoren, gono gonio

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves, Roots, Bark

GENERAL USES:

  • The fruit of the plant is edible and serves as food

  • The wood serves as fuel and lighting

  • It is use in making household or domestic tools e.g. handles, toy etc.

  • Twig can be use as chew-sticks. 

 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Madagascar

  • Nigeria

  • Zimbabwe

  • Senegal

  • Cameroon

  • Tanzania

  • Mozambique

  • South Africa

WHY IS IT GREEN?

 Allophylus africanus medicinal values include:

  • Diarrhea

  • Pile

  • Toothache

  • Anthelmintics

  • Venereal diseases

  • Cough

  • Sedatives

  • Painkiller

  • Arthritis

  • Rheumatism

  • Eye treatment

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Ornamental purpose

FUNFUL FACT

  • Allophylus africanus is a shrubby plant about 10m tall whose flower is white, cream, yellow or green in colour and fruit is red and fleshy.

FURTHER READINGS

Bharat, C. R., & Krishna, G. D. (2017). GC-MS analysis of young leaves of allophylus cobbe (L.) raeusch. and allophylus serratus (Roxb.) Kurz. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 51(3), 472–479. https://doi.org/10.5530/ijper.51.3.75

Chavan, R. B., & Gaikwad, D. K. (2016a). the Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Allophylus Species Used in Traditional Medicine: a Review. Www.wjpps.com World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(11), 664–682. https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpps201611-8039

Chavan, R. B., & Gaikwad, D. K. (2016b). the Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Allophylus Species Used in Traditional Medicine: a Review. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(11), 664–682. https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpps201611-8039

González, V. V., Solís, S. M., & Ferrucci, M. S. (2014). Anatomía reproductiva en flores estaminadas y pistiladas de Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae). Boletin de La Sociedad Argentina de Botanica, 49(2), 207–216.

Oladosu, I. A., Balogun, S. O., & Liu, Z. Q. (2015). Chemical constituents of Allophylus africanus. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 13(2), 0133–0141. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(15)60017-6

Allium sativum

allium-sativum_bloem-garlic.jpg

NAME:  Allium sativum

FAMILY: Liliaceae

COMMON NAMES: Garlic

LOCAL NAMES: Ayo, Ayuu

USEFUL PART(s):  Bulb

GENERAL USES:

  • Garlic is use in seasoning food and it can be eaten raw

  • It is used in fish and meat preservation

  • Liquid substance from the garlic can be use as adhesive on broken glass

  • It is use for pest control

 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Egypt

  • China

  • Nigeria

  • France

  • Italy

  • Vietnam

  • Indian

  • Pakistan

WHY IS IT GREEN?

 Allium sativum medicinal values include:

  • Fever

  • Coughs

  • Asthma

  • Dilated bronchi

  • Flatulence

  • Anthelmintic

  • Ringworm

  • Antibiotic

  • Diuretic

  • Emmenagogue

  • Antimicrobials,

  • Blood tonic

  • Malaria

  • Cold

  • Cardiovascular diseases

FUNFUL FACT

  • Garlic is bulbous plant which have sword shape leaves joined to the subterranean stem

  • Garlic was used in preventing microbial infection known as gangrene during World Wars I and II

FURTHER READINGS

Chakravarthi, P. V., Arivuchelvan, A., & Jagadeeswaran, A. (2016). Immunomodulatory activity of Allium Sativum against newcastle disease in native poultry birds. Indian Veterinary Journal, 93(5), 17–19.

Dash, P., Yadav, S., & Sahoo, P. K. (2014). Immunoadjuvant effect of garlic (Allium sativum)–mineral oil suspension on immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rohu, Labeo rohita. International Aquatic Research, 6(3), 167–173. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40071-014-0072-8

Farahpour, M. R., Hesaraki, S., Faraji, D., Zeinalpour, R., & Aghaei, M. (2017). Hydroethanolic Allium sativum extract accelerates excision wound healing: Evidence for roles of mast-cell infiltration and intracytoplasmic carbohydrate ratio. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 53(1). https://doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902017000115079

Fonseca, G. M., Passos, T. C., Ninahuaman, M. F. M. L., Caroci, A. S., & Costa, L. S. (2014). Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do alho (allium sativum liliaceae) e de seu extrato aquoso. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 16(3), 679–684. https://doi.org/10.1590/1983-084X/12_150

Gbolade, A. (2012). Ethnobotanical study of plants used in treating hypertension in Edo State of Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 144(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.07.018

Hosseini, A., & Hosseinzadeh, H. (2015). A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40618-015-0313-8

Kuete, V. (2017). Allium sativum. Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809286-6.00015-7

Martins, N., Petropoulos, S., & Ferreira, I. C. F. R. (2016). Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review. Food Chemistry, 211, 41–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.029

Products, C. on H. M. (2016). European Union herbal monograph Allium sativum L., bulbus. European Medical Agency, (July), 1–9.

Reiter, J., Levina, N., Van Der Linden, M., Gruhlke, M., Martin, C., & Slusarenko, A. J. (2017). Diallylthiosulfinate (Allicin), a volatile antimicrobial from garlic (Allium sativum), kills human lung pathogenic bacteria, including MDR strains, as a vapor. Molecules, 22(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101711

Allium Cepa

Allium_cepa.jpg

NAME:  Allium cepa

FAMILY: Liliaceae

COMMON NAMES: Onion, bulb onion, common onion

LOCAL NAMES: Alubosa, Albasa, Yabase, Albasa gudaji

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves, Bulb

GENERAL USES:

  • Onions serves as a food, cooked as vegetables or as ingredient for delicacies 

  • Onions are usually use in education to teach the use of a microscope for viewing  cell structure

 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • China

  • Egypt

  • Nigeria

  • England

  • India

  • Senegal

  • Mali

  • Burkina Faso

  • Ghana 

  • Kenya

WHY IS IT GREEN?

 Allium cepa medicinal values include:

  • Cough

  • Diuretic

  • Anthelmintics

  • Weak erection

  • Anti-tumour

  • boils

  • stings

  • Rubefacient

  • Throat infection

  • Headache

  • Asthma

FUNFUL FACT

  • Onions are biennial plants which has bluish-green leaves and its bulb at the base is encircle by fleshy modified leaves

  • They have a strong odour when cut and contain certain chemical substances which irritate the eyes.

  • Onions are toxic to some animals e.g. dog, cat, goat etc.

FURTHER READINGS

El-Aasr, M., Fujiwara, Y., Takeya, M., Ikeda, T., Tsukamoto, S., Ono, M., … Nohara, T. (2010). Onionin a from allium cepa inhibits macrophage activation. Journal of Natural Products, 73(7), 1306–1308. https://doi.org/10.1021/np100105u

Khanna, N., & Sharma, S. (2013). Allium Cepa Root Chromosomal Aberration Assay: A Review. Indian J. Pharm. Biol. Res, 1(3), 105–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.06.004

Muñoz, D. M., & Guerrero, N. (2013). Allium test para evaluar el efecto citotóxico y genotóxico de extractos naturales en células meristemáticas de Allium cepa. Memorias, 11(19), 83–86.

Ozakca, D. U., & Silah, H. (2013). Genotoxicity effects of Flusilazole on the somatic cells of Allium cepa. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 107(1), 38–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2013.05.001

Özkara, A., Akyıl, D., Eren, Y., & Erdoğmuş, S. F. (2015). Potential cytotoxic effect of Anilofos by using Allium cepa assay. Cytotechnology, 67(5), 783–791. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10616-014-9716-1

Pobłocka-Olech, L., Głód, D., Zebrowska, M. E., Sznitowska, M., & Krauze-Baranowska, M. (2016). TLC determination of flavonoids from different cultivars of Allium cepa and Allium ascalonicum. Acta Pharmaceutica, 66(4), 543–554. https://doi.org/10.1515/acph-2016-0038

Qin, R., Ning, C., Björn, L. O., & Li, S. (2016). Proteomic analysis of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. roots under copper stress. Plant and Soil, 401(1–2), 197–212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2741-9

Sari, M. U., Hartono, R., & Hakim, L. (2013). Sifat Antirayap Ekstrak Kulit Bawang Merah (Allium cepa). Jurnal USU, 139–145.

Setyadjit, & Sukasih, E. (2015). Effect of Addition of Filler on the Production of Shallot (Allium Cepa Var. Ascalonicum L.) Powder with Drum Dryer. Procedia Food Science, 3, 396–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profoo.2015.01.044

Surono, A. S. (2013). Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol Umbi Lapis Bawang Merah (Allium cepa L.) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Universitas Surabaya, 2(1), 1–15.

Ye, C.-L., Dai, D.-H., & Hu, W.-L. (2013). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from onion (Allium cepa L.). Food Control, 30(1), 48–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.033